Tag Archives: HGH

Androgen receptor

The Truth About “Down Regulation”

by Ed Barillas, Staff Writer

There is as much disinformation and misinformation about steroids as there is good and solid information among bodybuilders. If you step into any gym you will likely hear some kid yacking to his buddies about how steroids do this or how they do that – you get the picture. Anyway, this soon starts somewhat of a pissing contest as to who knows more about steroids and has about the same kind of imbicilic banter that teenage boys get into about girls and sex. With steroid banter, you hear all the popular terms like Deca, Test, HGH, gyno, zits, raisins, roid, freak, monster, roid-rage, but if by some rare chance they are smart and have been reading this or some other high quality bodybuilding site on the net and in our forums, they may actually get a few details right. More often than not they know just enough to be dangerous. Fortunately, steroids have not proven to be all that dangerous and not only that, most of these guys who are infatuated with steroids will not ever use or even see them other than in magazines.

Androgen receptor

A human androgen receptor (AR)

This kind of ego driven gym talk does not really bother me until they begin giving advice to other clueless people who actually have access to them and that’s where the problems begin. Spewing out steroid lingo gives other less experienced kids the impression that these kids actually know what they are talking about. That is how all of the psuedo-science folklore about steroids perpetuates. This is also why most people who actually use steroids know little about them and this last fact should bother anyone who cares about bodybuilding and/or bodybuilders.

The game plan of this article is to tell you about what Androgens actually do and how this precludes Androgen receptor down regulation. One misunderstood common principle of steroid physiology is the concept of Androgen receptors (AR), sometimes called “steroid receptors”, and the effects of steroid use on their regulation. It is commonly thought that taking Androgens for extended periods of time will lead to what is called AR “down regulation.” The notion for this argument goes something like this – when using steroids during an extended cycle, you eventually stop growing, even though the dose has not decreased. This belief has persisted despite the fact that there is no scientific evidence to date that shows that increased levels of Androgens down regulates the Androgen receptor in muscle tissue.

One can say that AR down-regulation sounds pretty straightforward on the surface. After all, we know that receptor down-regulation happens with other messenger-mediated systems in the body such as adrenergic receptors. It has been shown many a times that when taking a beta agonist such as Clenbuterol, the number of beta-receptors on target cells begins to lower. This is due to a decrease in the half-life of receptor proteins without a decrease in the rate that the cell is making new receptors. This leads to a decrease in the potency of a given dose. As a result, with fewer receptors you get a smaller, or lower, physiological response. This is a natural way for your body to maintain equilibrium in the face of an unusually high level of beta-agonism.

But really this example using Clenbuterol is not an appropriate one. Androgen receptors and adrenergic receptors are very different. Nevertheless, this is the argument for Androgen receptor down-regulation and the reasoning behind it. The differences in the regulation of ARs and adrenergic receptors, in part, show the mistake in the view that AR down-regulate when you take steroids. Where adrenergic receptor half-life is lowered in most target cells with increased catecholamines, AR receptors half-lives are actually increased in many tissues in the presence of Androgens.

If I may show you the flip side to this coin, against AR down-regulation in muscle tissue, I feel that once you consider all of the effects of testosterone on muscle cells you come to realize that when you eventually stop growing it is not because there is a reduction in the number of Androgen receptors.

So how do anabolic steroids produce muscle growth? The basic common answer is that steroids increase protein synthesis. Which is true, but there is more to it than simple increases in protein synthesis. Actually, the answer to the question of how steroids work must include virtually every mechanism involved in skeletal muscle hypertrophy which mechanisms include: Enhanced protein synthesis, enhanced growth factor activity (e.g. GH, IGF-1, etc.), ½ Enhanced activation of myogenic stem cells (i.e. satellite cells) ½ Enhanced myo-nuclear number (to maintain nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio) and ½ New myo-fiber formation.

Starting with enhanced growth factor activity, we know that testosterone increases HGH and IGF-1 levels. In a recent study the effects of testosterone and stanozolol were compared for their effects on stimulating HGH release. Testosterone enanthate (only 3 mg per kg per week) increased HGH levels by 22% and IGF-1 levels by 21% whereas oral stanozolol (0.1mg per kg per day) had zero effect whatsoever on IGF-1 or HGH levels. This study was only 3 weeks long, and although stanozolol did not affect HGH or IGF-1 levels, it had the same effect on urinary nitrogen levels. So what does this difference in the effects of testosterone and stanozolol mean? It means that stanozolol may increase protein synthesis by binding to AR receptors in existing myonuclei, but because it does not increase growth factor levels, it is much less effective at activating satellite cells and therefore may not increase satellite cell activity nor myo-nuclear number directly when compared to testosterone esters.





NFL Players Delay HGH Testing … Again

Citing resistance to a “piecemeal” approach proposed by the NFL, the 32 player representatives of the NFL Players Association (NFLPA) have delayed a vote that would implement regular testing for Human Growth Hormone.

The league and the players came to an agreement for testing for the performance enhancing drug way back in 2011 but negotiations on how the testing will be administered and how punishments for breaking the league’s anti-doping rules will be administered have delayed the implementation of the policy for nearly four years.NFLPA HGH

Other issues besides HGH testing have also caused the hangup including how the league will deal with DUI arrests and what the acceptable level of marijuana should be in urine tests, however most experts agree that it is the looming HGH testing that has the NFLPA dragging its feet.

“There was no vote tonight by the NFLPA player representatives,” said Union Spokesman George Atallah after Tuesday night’s meeting. “We will continue to work towards a comprehensive agreement.”

One of the major sticking points cited by the NFLPA is how the testing procedures will be handled because they are uncomfortable with the science. The union is also concerned about how appeals will be handled by the league for players caught with positive tests, however the league already agreed to having an appeals process several years ago.

In a physically demanding sport like football, it is no wonder that players would be tempted to use HGH. In fact, without testing, it is likely that nearly every player in the NFL is using or has used HGH. This could be a major reason for the delayed vote – too many players would be facing game suspensions as soon as the testing is implemented.


HGH collagen

The Effects of HGH on Collagen Production

While society has been conditioned to use several brands of anti-aging skincare creams, others have broken away and found a new way of increasing collagen production to look and feel younger. The answer is human growth hormone, also known as HGH, which are delivered through injections.

Collagen is a type of protein that the body produces that works with keratin to give smoothness, strength, and elasticity to skin. As a child you have an abundance of collagen in your body, which is why you probably had shiny hair and clear skin, and no issues with skin elasticity. The skin is made up of three layers: the epidermis, the dermis, and the hypodermis. Collagen is found in the second layer, the dermis, and the molecules are bundled together throughout that layer of skin, all over the body, which is what gives us all the youthful look we begin to seek as we age.

HGH collagen

Human Growth Hormone boosts collagen production which keeps your skin young and elastic.

Known as the cement that holds everything together by way of collagen production, Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is an important protein that the human body needs, but does not always get as a result of aging. The natural decrease in male and female hormones (testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone, among others, can decrease the body’s natural ability to create collagen, and HGH can help to reverse or stop this process. As we get older, our bodies produce less and less collagen, which produces the sagging skin, wrinkles on the face, and the dull hair we generally begin to notice as we approach our sixties and seventies. For some, based on health, mental wellbeing, diet, alcohol intake, smoking or chewing tobacco, collagen levels may begin to decline sooner and at a more rapid pace, and HGH can be the answer to reversing the effects these substances and lifestyle choices have had on collagen production.

To stave off the effects of collagen depletion within the human body, the cosmetics industry has marketed hundreds of skin creams, serums, and other skincare products to help combat the signs of aging—and millions of people spend huge sums of money every year on the skincare brands that are by and large promising the same (or similar) results that only HGH can have on collagen production in the body. So do these creams actually work? Maybe temporarily at best, but they tend to fade after a certain amount of time and cannot create long-term results as we continue to age and as collagen continues to naturally diminish.

Human growth hormone is naturally produced in the body by the pituitary gland, which is responsible for regulating human growth in all of us. In addition to aiding in the production of collagen, HGH also regulates heart function, fat and sugar metabolism, and even body temperature. Since the natural production of human growth hormone and collagen slow down as we grow older, taking an extra boost of human growth hormone can help better maintain collagen, muscles and skin, as well as boosting metabolism. Pairing human growth hormone with collagen will make you feel as though you’re a young adult again, even as you’re climbing that hill towards middle age.

HGH collagen product

HGH/Collagen products are becoming more widely available.

Even though HGH is on the rise and widely accepted in many circles in today’s culture for collagen production (among other needs), and is used by hundreds of celebrities and athletes, its legal status has many gray areas. It is actually still illegal to distribute human growth hormone if it isn’t going to be used for medical reasons as prescribed by a doctor. Yes, you can still buy supplements—albeit synthetic substitutes—doctors can prescribe authentic human growth hormone if they feel that your desire for and/or potential medical condition makes HGH a viable option for your unique needs.

While some people are not fond of taking human growth hormone by injection for collagen production, researchers have created another option. Instead of injecting HGH directly into the body, patients take a supplement that is a combination of human growth hormone and amino acids that gently stimulate the body’s natural human growth hormone production, resulting in the same smooth skin collagen helps to create, as well as an overall better sense of wellbeing.

Either way, taking human growth hormone supplements has had positive results on most people striving to produce more collagen, with some users experiencing more rapid positive results and others experiencing slower (but equally as good) long term results. After just a few injections of human growth hormone, most people show signs of tighter skin and better overall skin tone. Brighter eyes, increased endurance, and increased metabolism, are also important and meaningful results created by HGH that many people who are nearing midlife or just wanting to feel and look a little younger are interested in.

HGH Fragment

HGH Fragment 176-191

Human Growth Hormone Fragment 176-191 (HGH 176-191) is a protein peptide made from amino acids 176-191. The HGH in HGH Fragment 176-191 stands for Human Growth Hormone, and has been proven to reduce fat and help with weight loss, making it a highly desired substance. HGH 176-191 works by mimicking the way the natural HGH regulates someone’s metabolism, but without all the adverse effects on insulin sensitivity, or blood sugar, and cell proliferation, or muscle growth. This drug also promotes anti-aging.HGH Fragment

Like unmodified GH, the fragment stimulates the breaking down of fat and inhibits the formation of lipids, like fatty acids, in the body. HGH 176-191 is meant to be over ten times stronger than the regular growth hormone in order to prompt weight loss within the body.

Most studies have shown that the best results were given after taking doses of 500-1000 mcg split into multiple doses throughout the day. Also, many studies have shown that HGH Fragment 176-191 can be used continuously long term, as no adverse long-term side effects have been reported or found while researching.

Studies have suggested that taking 250mcg of HGH 176-191 at each meal, five days a week will get you the best results. If you are looking for a more aggressive dose, bump up your dose of HGH 176-191 to 350mcg three times a day, five days a week. Doses should be given three hours apart, and the injection should be given on an empty stomach or after eating only protein, as carbohydrates and fats stunt the release of the growth hormone within the body.

With HGH 176-191, results will usually start to become evident around the four-week mark, after being combined with diet and exercise in a daily routine. The best results will begin to show after a minimum of three months after the initial first injection. When buying HGH 176-191, make sure you are actually getting the real thing—you do not want to be surprised by getting a counterfeit version or some other form of steroid that isn’t what you had in mind. According to UK Peptides, fake versions of HGH 176-191, it is easy for those who are inexperienced with growth hormones to tell the difference between HGH 176-191 and something else that may or may not be similar. If you do not see any changes in your physique after a few weeks of using the HGH 176-191 you obtained, check with a medical specialist to confirm its validity.

When you have determined that you got authentic HGH 176-191, you can begin to administer it. After administering the growth hormone, wait about half an hour before consuming a meal. At this point, the hormone has started to take effect and you are allowed to eat whatever you want, regardless of size or caloric intake.

Just like every other steroid out there, HGH 176-191 has its side effects, even though they are short term and exist only because your body is still getting used to it. HGH 176-191 can lead to a feeling of compulsion to continue, which can be precarious for mental health. Once users stop injecting they may start to see results fade, and for some users this can create a sense of self-image dysphoria creeping in. For this reason, it is important to limit how much you come to depend on the use of this steroid for how you view your own physique.

In rare cases, the swelling of the feet and hands may occur, along with an increased heart rate and blood pressure level. Headaches and nausea may occur if too much was injected at one time, so be sure to monitor your health carefully.

Two of the mildest side effects that are also the most common are water retention and lethargy. These occur in the early stages of using the drug, as your body is still getting used to it, and they will eventually disappear in time.

While many of these side effects have low chances of occurrence, they can still happen for those who administer at the onset. For the reason of having low risks, many people opt for HGH 176-191 over other steroid options, claiming that it will get you the results you want without too many side effects you don’t want.

As always, staying incredibly hydrated is key while using HGH 176-191. The more hydrated you are, the better your body works at melting fat and building muscle while on this regimen. To pair with HGH Fragment 176-191 and get the most out of it, eating a balanced diet is crucial, as well as getting enough sleep each night.

HGH Fragment 176-191 is one of the most commonly used muscle enhancements in the market and shows results in as little as four weeks. With basically no long-term side effects, it is usually the first choice for bodybuilders and anyone trying to get in shape.


HGH – Human Growth Hormone

by 3J, www.3jsdiet.com

HGH is a naturally occurring hormone in the human body that is produced by the pituitary gland. A release of HGHRH and SST by the hypothalamus coincide with the amount of HGH released by the pituitary gland. HGH is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction/regeneration. Being a stress hormone, it also raises the concentration of glucose and free fatty acids and, most importantly, stimulates the production of IGF-1 from the liver. The peptide has shown the ability to increase the sizes of cells and the rate of cell mitosis.hgh

Enhancement of macro/micro nutrient absorption has also been proven with the use of HGH; specifically the conversion of material into protein. In studies, it has been found that HGH also alters the rate in which carbohydrates and fats are utilized. Studies indicate that the use of carbohydrates is decreased while the use of fats are increased. It is believed that, partially, the advantage of HGH and fat loss comes from such a mechanism. HGH is secreted in rhythmic pulse while one is sleeping due to the melodic release of HGHRH and SST, which control the gateway to the release. HGH also carries with it the ability to stimulate the production of cartilage, though secondarily. When HGH is released, it also causes a release of IGF through the liver in response. IGF is known for its cartilage growth and reproductive properties.

human growth hormoneIn recent years, HGH has been popularized as a vitality drug. Many TRT companies are providing prescribed legal HGH to their clients to promote an anabolic and age defying synergy with their trt doses. Studies indicate that a very low dosage of HGH will be enough for fat burning properties to take effect. Technically, 2iu of HGH should be enough for even the larger bodybuilder to see fat burning properties, but the gold standard in the bodybuilding community has been a minimum of 4iu (broken into two doses a day) for fat burning and above 6iu for its anabolic properties. The duration of cycle has been popularized at 6 months, though you will start to see results in as little as two months. Many bodybuilders will stack HGH with steroids and other compounds to cause a profound anabolic and fat burning effect. The use of HGH, testosterone, insulin, IGF-1, and thyroid hormones have become a staple in any pro bodybuilder’s regimen for contest prep.   The use of HGH does not come without risk. Two of the biggest risks that a user should be worried about are the fact that HGH makes everything grow, including cancer cells and the use of anabolics with HGH has been shown to cause an enlarging of the heart (cardiomegaly) which can lead to many serious complications. Doctors supervision is always recommended when using any compound.

A fair warning to all who wish to purchase HGH. One can pay as much as 2 dollars for one single iu of HGH on the black market. With the legal market being about five times as expensive its easy to see why people may choose to go this route. HGH is very popular in the black market, and for that reason its also highly counterfeited. When trying to purchase HGH on the black market, make sure you are relying on a trustable source. As always, going the legal route is the route that everyone should take. But the reality of the situation is that people will buy black market. Make sure to check reviews, don’t get scammed.


A-Rod’s Advanced Drug Regimen

Although Alex Rodriguez finally waived the flag of surrender and dropped his lawsuit against the MLB for suspending him, we have learned quite a bit about the evidence the league had on the star player’s use of performance enhancing drugs.


Alex Rodriguz’ PED program created by Biogenesis was a high-priced mix of high-tech drugs.

According to documents the league obtained from Bioigenesis, the lab where Rodriguez and a slew of other baseball players went for their PEDs,  Rodriguez’s $12,000 per month drug regimen appears to utilize some of the most sophisticated drugs and diet programs in use today. In four distinct, month-long phases, Rodriquez’s cycle included hGH, GHRP, CJC, Testosterone cream, L-Glutathione cream, Melatonin, Testosterone Troche, Clomiphene, iGF-1, hCG and a host of other vitamins, omegas and other dietary supplements.

Tony Bosch, Biogenesis owner and the developer of this high-priced program, likely got most of the drugs for these programs from legitimate drug-makers through his father Pedro Bosch who is a family physician and was listed as Biogenesis’ medical director. However, some of the drugs in the list were likely procured through underground labs because investigational compounds like GHRP 2/6 are not available on any regulated market.

“My guess is that [Biogenesis] was getting them from [online sources] and administering and reselling it to [Rodriguez],” said Jose Garcia, MD, PhD, an endocrinologist at Baylor College of Medicine who has been involved in studies of GHRP 2/6 in an interview with MedPage Today. “You would never go to a site like this because there is no quality control so you never know if these products are contaminated or if they contain what they’re supposed to. Not even for animal experiments.”

Tony Bosch

In exchange for immunity from lawsuits brought on by the MLB against Biogenesis and its associates, Tony Bosch turned over the evidence that eventually sunk Rodriguez.

Despite Dr. Garcia’s adamant plea for people to stop taking these kinds of drugs, they are known to the bodybuilding community as some of the best advances in lowering unwanted levels of estrogen during a testosterone cycle. But just as the hefty price tag for Biogenesis’ PED program indicates, these drugs can be very expensive.

As for Rodriguez, the most expensive part of his drug program will be his 162-game suspension from MLB which will take him out of the 2014 season completely – without pay.

As for Tony Bosch, now that Rodriguez has dropped all of his lawsuits against MLB, his players’ union and everyone else he threatened to sue over his getting caught, it looks like MLB will drop its own lawsuit against the Biogenesis founder on the grounds that he and his associates committed “intentional and unjustified tortious interference” with contracts between MLB and its players by providing them with banned substances.

It was MLB’s threat of litigation that forced Bosch to hand over information on Rodriguez and other baseball players who were using PEDs from Biogenesis, which is how the information on Rodriguez’ drug regimen (see below) was released.

Alex Rodriguez’ Drug Regimen

arod drug regimen


Mavericks Owner Favors HGH Use in NBA

In a recent interview with the USA Today, Dallas Mavericks owner and tech billionaire Mark Cuban said the NBA should be looking closer at its drug policy that bans Human Growth Hormone (HGH), especially for players who are recovering from injury.

According to the USA Today article, Cuban recently shared his thoughts on HGH with NBA league officials at a Oct. 23 Board of Governors meeting in New York. At that meeting, he told the other owners that teams and fans could benefit from players using HGH to expedite an athlete’s return to the basketball court after injury.


Mavericks Owner Mark Cuban

“The issue isn’t whether I think it should be used. The issue is that it has not been approved for such use. And one of the reasons it hasn’t been approved is that there have not been studies done to prove the benefits of prescribing HGH for athletic rehabilitation or any injury rehabilitation that I’m aware of. The product has such a huge stigma that no one wants to be associated with it. I believe that professional sports leagues should work together and fund studies to determine the efficacy of HGH for rehabbing an injury,” Cuban told USA TODAY Sports. “Working together could lead us from the path of demonizing HGH and even testosterone towards a complete understanding. It could allow us to make a data based decision rather than the emotional decision we are currently making. And if it can help athletes recover more quickly, maybe we can extend careers and have healthier happier players and fans.”

Cuban, who made his fortune in the tech industry before buying the Mavericks, has long touted the benefits of using science to enhance all aspects of life, including sport. In an interview on “The Tonight Show with Jay Leno” last year, Cuban said HGH has never been proven to help a baseball player of basketball player and that the substance has been banned “for no good reason.”

Although use of HGH without a prescription is illegal under the 1990 Anabolic Steroids Control Act and the World Anti-Doping Agency and the International Olympic Committee classify HGH as a banned substance and test for it, the NBA’s policy is less clear. NBA players are not allowed to take HGH, however, currently, the league does not utilize blood testing to screen players for using it. In 2011, the NBA Players Association and the league agreed to let a panel of experts weigh in on the issue of HGH use, but no findings have been reported as of yet. NBA Commissioner David Stern had hoped to have HGH testing implemented by the beginning of this season, however talks with the players’ union broke down in September and no deal could be reached.

A similar fate happened to the NFL this fall when the NFL Players Association blocked the league’s attempt at implementing blood tests for HGH before the start of this season.

Unlike other sports, NBA players have largely stayed clear of performance-enhancing drug (PED) controversies. Only three players – Rashard Lewis, OJ Mayo, Hedo Turkoglo – have ever been suspended for violating the league’s drug policy.

Still, it seems unlikely, despite Cuban’s support, that HGH will ever get the blessing of a major sports league. Organizations like the World Anti-Doping Agency apply a lot of public pressure on sports to never allow the use of PEDs and its hard to imagine them ever changing their mind even if Cuban funded a study that proved the benefits of HGH use for athletes outweigh the risks.

A rod

Alex Rodriguez Suspension Points to Increasing Angst Over Steroids

MLB Commissioner Bud Selig didn’t follow through with his threat to ban Yankee’s third baseman Alex Rodriguez from baseball for life, but his 211 game suspension without pay is certainly the most severe punishment ever sought by baseball for doping allegations. Rodriguez has denied any wrongdoing (of coarse) and is appealing his suspension. Meanwhile, the other MLB players, including All-Stars Nelson Cruz and Johnny Peralta, who are caught up in the Biogenesis scandal are quietly taking their 50 game suspensions.

picture of Alex Rodriguez up to bat against Oakland in 2010.

Alex Rodriguez up to bat against Oakland in 2010.

Much has come out about the Biogenesis scandal since the story first broke in early January by the Miami New Times. Biogenesis was an anti-aging clinic that supplied HGH to MLB players and has been linked to NBA, NCAA, boxing and tennis players as well, although no formal actions have been taken in those sports yet. Most of MLB’s evidence linking athletes like Rodriguez to the clinic comes from a suit brought on by MLB against Biogenesis in which the names of several players, including Rodriquez, were disclosed. Rodriguez is getting hammered especially hard because he allegedly paid people to destroy evidence of his involvement in the clinic.

In addition to his connection to Biogenesis, Rodriguez also consulted BALCO founder Victor Conte for what both parties say were for legal nutritional supplements. Although some may raise their eyebrows as to what really transpired between baseball’s most infamous steroid supplier and Rodriguez, it makes sense that if Rodriguez were taking HGH or other PEDs, he would seek the advice of Conte on what nutrition and supplements work best with the drugs. But either way, this new revelation can’t look good in the eyes of MLB investigators who will paint a portrait of Rodriguez as someone who carouses with the steroid sect of sports.

Although much of the athletic world has condemned Rodriguez and the other players for their involvement with Biogenesis (fans have been booing Rodriguez at nearly every at bat he’s had since his appeal let him play ball again until final sentencing), there are a growing number of people who think it is time for baseball, and sports in general, to ease up on steroid restrictions. Steroid drugs can be seen as either a performance enhancing drug that helps players cheat their way to success, or as a useful medication to give strength back to a body damaged by injury and exertion.

It is fairly obvious by Selig’s harsh suspension given to Rodriguez which camp he is in. However, baseball has seen punishments come down before – denial of Hall of Fame status, lawsuits, game suspensions without pay, etc. – and yet players still take the risk of getting caught and take steroid drugs. It makes me wonder whether competitive advantage is the only motivation or if longevity in a sport that ravishes the muscles, joints and ligaments is a greater incentive. But until sports see the use of steroids as a medical tool to heal aging players and regulate their use by doctors, we can expect Selig and MLB to grow more and more angst over the steroid problem in baseball.


Interpol Cracks Down on Online Drugs

Buying drugs online has always been a risk to consumers. There are fraudulent drugs sold as the real deal, Websites that collect your personal and credit card information for criminal activity and just plain bad companies that send the wrong drugs because they are not using professional standards. Despite this risk, a lot of people looking to get in shape purchase their supplements online because it is the easiest, most convenient, and sometimes, only place to get them. However, an international policing effort that is now in its fifth year is trying to shut down the online pharmacies around the world – a move that effects both fraudulent, criminal drug Websites as well as legitimate supplement ones.

picture of interpol office

Interpol office

Last week, the European  police agency Interpol teamed up with other international organizations, including the FDA and the World Customs Organization, in its fifth year of Operation Pangea. The sting that targets online prescription drug pharmacies and online supplement distributors netted 79 arrests; shut down over 18,000 Websites; and confiscated over 3.75 million units of drugs and supplements estimated at over $10.5 million. The sweep was coordinated with the assistance of online drug sales company LegitScript as well as credit card and online payment companies like Visa, Mastercard and PayPal.

“Organized, sophisticated criminals and rogue pharmacies are unfortunately using the Internet to defraud innocent consumers, to place them in harm’s way, to steal their identities and to engage in credit card fraud,” said INTERPOL Secretary General Ronald K. Noble.

Over 100 countries were involved in the INTERPOL operation, with several policing organizations conducting raids on addresses linked to online pharmacies. Also, shipments were stopped, seized and inspected on their way to the homes of customers. OVer 133,000 packages were inspected by government regulators and around 6,700 of those were confiscated. Among the counterfeit medicines confiscated were anti-cancer medication, antibiotics and erectile dysfunction pills.

But not all the drugs taken were fakes. Some were food supplements and diet drugs that were being sold to consumers who wanted exactly what the online pharmacies were selling. Although they were only a small fraction of the drugs seized in the operation, several Websites that specialized in selling anabolic steroids, human growth hormone and other performance enhancing drugs were shut down. These sites were also shut down, not by taking direct legal action against the owners, but by using credit card and payment companies and domain registrars to seize their URLs and effectively wipe them off the Web.

In total, the US Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency as well as the US Department of Justice seized 686 Websites it accused of selling steroids and other supplements. In Australia, 120 domain names were seized by its regulatory bodies.

In addition to shutting down Websites with INTERPOL’s Operation Pangea V, the US FDA also announced a national campaign called BeSafeRx – Know Your Online Pharmacy that seeks to educate consumers on fraudulent medications, as well as banned and unapproved supplements.


Human Growth Hormone / HGH (somatotropin)

Human Growth Hormone, as used by athletes and bodybuilders, is a synthetic form of the natural hormone the body produces in the pituitary gland that produces (you guessed it) growth. It takes very minute amounts of HGH to produce muscle-building and fat-burning results. As with most steroid and steroid-like compounds, there is the danger of shutting off the body’s natural HGH production by taking the synthetic compound. Other side effects of HGH include carpal tunnel syndrome, enlarged organs and as thickening of the bones in the hands and feet. HGH, besides promoting growth in the muscles has also shown to be effective in restoring damaged cartilage.

In the human body growth hormone is produced by the pituitary gland. It exists at especially high levels during adolescence when it promotes the growth of tissues, protein deposition and the breakdown of subcutaneous fat stores. Upon maturation endogenous levels of GH decrease, but remain present in the body at a substantially lower level. In the body the actual structure of growth hormone is a sequence of 191 amino acids. Once scientists isolated this hormone, many became convinced it would exhibit exceptional therapeutic properties. It would be especially effective in cases of pituitary deficient dwarfism, the drug perhaps restoring much linear growth if administered during adolescence.

he 1980’s brought about the first prepared drugs containing Human Growth Hormone. The content was taken from a biological origin, the hormone being extracted from the pituitary glands of human corpses then prepared as a medical injection. This production method was short lived however, since it was linked to the spread of a rare and fatal brain disease. Today virtually all forms of HGH are synthetically manufactured. The recombinant DNA process is very intricate; using transformed e-coli bacterial or mouse cell lines to genetically produce the hormone structure. It is highly unlikely you will ever cross the old biologically active item on the black market (such as Grorm), as all such products should now be discontinued. Here in the United States two distinctly structured compounds are being manufactured for the pharmaceutical market. The item Humatrope by Eli Lilly Labs has the correct 191 amino acid sequence while Genentech’s Protropin has 192. This extra amino acid slightly increases the chance for developing an antibody reaction to the growth hormone. The 191 amino acid configuration is therefore considered more reliable, although the difference is not great. Protropin is still Anabolics 2002 considered an effective product and is prescribed regularly. Outside of the U.S., the vast majority of HGH in circulation will be the correct 191 amino acid sequence so this distinction is not a great a concern.

The use of growth hormone has been increasing in popularity among athletes, due of course to the numerous benefits associated with use. To begin with, GH stimulates growth in most body tissues, primarily due to increases in cell number rather than size. This includes skeletal muscle tissue, and with the exception of eyes and brain all other body organs. The transport of amino acids is also increased, as is the rate of protein synthesis. All of these effect are actually mediated by IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor), a highly anabolic hormone produced in the liver and other tissues in response to growth hormone (peak levels of IGF-1 are noted approximately 20 hours after HGH administration). Growth hormone itself also stimulated triglyceride hydrolysis in adipose tissue, usually producing notable fat loss during treatment. GH also increases glucose output in the liver, and induces insulin resistance by blocking the activity of this hormone in target cells. A shift is seen where fats become a more primary source of fuel, further enhancing body fat loss.

Its growth promoting effect also seems to strengthen connective tissues, cartilage and tendons. This effect should reduce the susceptibility to injury (due to heavy weight training), and increase lifting ability (strength). HGH is also a safe drug for the “piss-test”. Although its use is banned by athletic committees, there is no reliable detection method. This makes clear its attraction to (among others) professional bodybuilders, strength athletes and Olympic competitors, who are able to use this drug straight through a competition. There is talk however that a reliable test for the exogenous administration of growth hormone has been developed, and is close to being implemented. Until this happens, growth hormone will remain a highly sought after drug for the tested athlete.

But the degree in which HGH actually works for an athlete has been the topic of a long running debate. Some claim it to be the holy grail of anabolics, capable of amazing things. Able to provide incredible muscle growth and unbelievable fat loss in a very short period of time. Since it is used primarily by serious competitors who can afford such an expensive drug, a great body of myth further surrounds HGH discussion (among those personally unfamiliar). Many will state with the utmost confidence that the incredible mass of the Olympian competitors each year is 100% due to the use of HGH. Others have crossed bodybuilding materials claiming it to be a complete waste of money, an ineffective anabolic and barely worthwhile for fat loss. With its high price tag, certainly an incredibly poor buy in the face of steroids. So we have a very wide variety of opinions regarding this drug, whom should we believe?

It is first important to understand why there the results obtained from this drug seem to vary so much. A logical factor in this regard would seem to be the price of this drug. Due to the elaborate manufacturing techniques used to produce it, it is extremely costly. Even a moderately dosed cycle could cost an athlete between $75-$150 per daily dosage. Most are unable or unwilling to spend so much, and instead tinker around with low dosages of the drug. Most who have used this item extensively claim it will only be effective at higher doses. Poor results would then be expected if low amounts were used, or the drug not administered daily. If you cannot commit to the full expense of an HGH cycle, you should really not be trying to use the drug.

The average male athlete will usually need a dosage in the range of 4 to 6 I.U. per day to elicit the best results. On the low end perhaps 1 to 2 I.U. can be used daily, but this is still a considerable expense. Daily dosing is important, as HGH has a very short life span in the body. Peak blood concentrations are noted quickly (2 to 6 hours) after injection, and the hormone is cleared from the body with a half-life of only 20-30 minutes. Clearly it does not stick around very long, making stable blood levels difficult to maintain. The effects of this drug are also most pronounced when it is used for longer periods of time, often many months long. Some do use it for shorter periods, but generally only when looking for fat loss. For this purpose a cycle of at least four weeks would be used. This compound can be administered in both an intramuscular and subcutaneous injection. “Sub-Q” injections are particularly noted for producing a localized loss of fat, requiring the user to change injection points regularly to even out the effect. A general loss of fat seems to be the one characteristic most people agree on. It appears that the fat burning properties of this drug are more quickly apparent, and less dependent on high doses.

Other drugs also need to be used in conjunction with HGH in order to elicit the best results. Your body seems to require an increased amount of thyroid hormones, insulin and androgens while HGH levels are elevated (HGH therapy in fact is shown to lower thyroid and insulin levels). To begin with, the addition of thyroid hormones will greatly increase the thermogenic effectiveness of a cycle. Taking either Cytomel® or Synthroid® (prescription versions of T-3 and T-4) would seem to make the most sense (the more powerful Cytomel® is usually preferred). Insulin as well is very welcome during a cycle, used most commonly in an anabolic routine as described in this book under the insulin heading. Aside from replacing lowered insulin levels, use of this hormone is important as it can increase receptor sensitivity to IGF-1, and reduce levels of IGF binding protein-1 allowing for more free circulating IGF-1 (growth hormone itself also lowers IGF binding protein levelss’). Steroids as well prove very necessary for the full anabolic effect of GH to become evident. Particularly something with a notable androgenic component such as testosterone or trenbolone (if worried about estrogen) should be used. The added androgen is quite useful, as it promotes anabolism by enhancing muscle cell size (remember GH primarily effects cell number). Steroid use may also increase free IGF-1 via a lowering of IGF binding proteins. The combination of all of these (HGH, anabolics, insulin and T-3) proves to be the most synergistic combination, providing clearly amplified results. it is of course important to note that thyroid and insulin are particularly powerful drugs that involve a number of additional risks.

Release and action of GH and IGF-1: GHRH (growth hormone releasing hormone) and SST (somatostatin) are released by the hypothalamus to stimulate or inhibit the output of GH by the pituitary. GH has direct effects on many tissues, as well as indirect effects via the production of IGF-1. IGF-1 also causes negative feedback inhibition at the pituitary and hypothalamus. Heightened release of somatostatin affects not only the release of GH, but insulin and thyroid hormones as well.

HGH itself does carry with it some of its own risks. The most predominantly discussed side effect would be acromegaly, or a noticeable thickening of the bones (notably the feet, forehead, hands, jaw and elbows). The drug can also enlarge vital organs such as the heart and kidney, and has been linked to hypoglycemia and diabetes (presumably due to its ability to induce insulin resistance). Theoretically, overuse of this hormone can bring about a number of conditions, some life threatening. Such problems however are extremely rare. Among the many athletes using growth hormone, we have very few documented cases of a serious problem developing. When used periodically at a moderate dosage, the athlete should have little cause for worry. Of course if there are any noticeable changes in bone structure, skin texture or normal health and well being during use, HGH therapy should be completely halted.

In summary, the biggest mistake we can make with this drug is to get confused by the price tag. Even a relatively short cycle of this drug (and ancillaries) will cost in the thousand(s), not hundreds of dollars. We cannot jump to the conclusion that GH is therefore the most unbelievable anabolic. This hormone is simply very complex, and costly to manufacture (though it should be getting cheaper). If you were looking to achieve just a great mass gain the $1,000 would be better spent on steroids. Growth Hormone will not turn you into an overnight “freaky” monster and it is certainly not “the answer”. Yes, it is a very effective performance enhancement tool. But it is more a tool for the competitive athlete looking for more than steroids alone can provide. There is little doubt that GH contributes considerably to the physiques and performance of many top bodybuilders and athletes. In this arena, the money spent on it is well justified, the drug obviously necessary. But outside of competitive sports it is usually not.



diagram of insulin_image


Insulin is the body’s natural regulator of blood sugar levels and is used medically to treat Diabetes. For athletes and bodybuilders, Insulin is used as an anabolic agent because it will increase the amount of protein in your diet converted into amino acids, which are the building blocks of muscle. Stacking insulin with IGF !, HGH and an anabolic steroid can produce extremely positive muscle gains when used properly and with a high-protein diet. Unfortunately, taking insulin is extremely dangerous using Insulin improperly can turn a person into a diabetic, cause a hypoglycemic coma and even result in death.