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  1. #1
    Administrator Dreaded Pirate Roberts's Avatar
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    What does Testosterone do in the body
    What does Testosterone do in the body. Do you really know. Testosterone is one of the most defining influences in who we are. Do you understand why? Please share you views and understanding.

  2. #2
    Amateur Bodybuilder JMB1's Avatar
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    T
    There is more..

    Testosterone - what it is, what it does, and why it's important.
    Testosterone is naturally occuring sex hormone in men and women. It was synthesized in 1935..? The people (Germans) who synthesized it would later go on to be offered the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1939. The Nazi government made them decline.
    All anabolic/androgenic steroids are derived from testosterone.

    - Testosterone is the primary
    androgenic /anabolic steroid hormone in the body of men and women. It is produced mainly in the testes of men and in the ovaries of women.
    - Promotes the normal development and maintenance of male sex and reproductive organs.
    - Facilitates spermatogenesis and promotes the maturation of sperm.
    - Key influence in sexual desire and related behaviours.
    - Stimulates ********* processes such as protein synthesis and muscle growth.
    - Contributes to secondary sexual characteristics such as bone mass,
    musculature, fat distribution, and hair patterns.
    - Aids in the maintenance of the male reproductive tract.

    Too much T in men and women will produce androgen related side effects.
    (aggression, maculinization, muscle growth, etc.)
    Too little T in men can lead to androgen deficiancy effects.
    (Low lebido, loss of drive, loss of muscle mass, depression, memory, etc.)
    Natural testosterone production will decrease as a person ages.

    The medical community's says normal Testosterone levels are around 300-1200ng/dl in males.
    The medical term hypogonadism means
    your body cannot make it's own T.
    If you find yourself with this diagnosis
    your balls have effectively given you your
    pink slip.
    JM

  3. #3
    vet jackt's Avatar
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    it promotes nitrogen retention in the muscle, therefore allowing the muscle to store more protein, which is how the muscle grows. simple as that

  4. #4
    Administrator Dreaded Pirate Roberts's Avatar
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    Keep the info coming. Come on guys. You aren't even scratching the surface.

  5. #5
    Straight Up Gangster ! Die$eL~Man's Avatar
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    i love my testosteroni

  6. #6
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    Lifted from wiki
    Physiological effects

    In general, androgens promote protein synthesis and growth of those tissues with androgen receptors. Testosterone effects can be classified as virilizing and anabolic, although the distinction is somewhat artificial, as many of the effects can be considered both.

    * Anabolic effects include growth of muscle mass and strength, increased bone density and strength, and stimulation of linear growth and bone maturation.
    * Androgenic effects include maturation of the sex organs, particularly the penis and the formation of the scrotum in unborn children, and after birth (usually at puberty) a deepening of the voice, growth of the beard and axillary hair. Many of these fall into the category of male secondary sex characteristics.

    Testosterone effects can also be classified by the age of usual occurrence. For postnatal effects in both males and females, these are mostly dependent on the levels and duration of circulating free testosterone.

    Early infancy

    Early infancy androgen effects are the least understood. In the first weeks of life for male infants, testosterone levels rise. The levels remain in a pubertal range for a few months, but usually reach the barely detectable levels of childhood by 4–6 months of age.[4][5] The function of this rise in humans is unknown. It has been speculated that "brain masculinization" is occurring since no significant changes have been identified in other parts of the body.[6][citation needed] Surprisingly, the male brain is masculinized by testosterone being aromatized into estrogen, which crosses the blood-brain barrier and enters the male brain, whereas female fetuses have alpha-fetoprotein which binds up the estrogen so that female brains are not affected.[7]
    [edit] Pre-peripubertal

    Pre- Peripubertal effects are the first visible effects of rising androgen levels at the end of childhood, occurring in both boys and girls.[vague]

    * Adult-type body odour
    * Increased oiliness of skin and hair, acne
    * Pubarche (appearance of pubic hair)
    * Axillary hair
    * Growth spurt, accelerated bone maturation
    * Hair on upper lip and sideburns.

    [edit] Pubertal

    Pubertal effects begin to occur when androgen has been higher than normal adult female levels for months or years. In males, these are usual late pubertal effects, and occur in women after prolonged periods of heightened levels of free testosterone in the blood.

    * Enlargement of sebaceous glands. This might cause acne.
    * Phallic enlargement or clitoromegaly
    * Increased libido and frequency of erection or clitoral engorgement
    * Pubic hair extends to thighs and up toward umbilicus
    * Facial hair (sideburns, beard, moustache)
    * Loss of scalp hair (Androgenetic alopecia)
    * Chest hair, periareolar hair, perianal hair
    * Leg hair
    * Axillary hair
    * Subcutaneous fat in face decreases
    * Increased muscle strength and mass[8]
    * Deepening of voice
    * Increase in height
    * Growth of the Adam's apple
    * Growth of spermatogenic tissue in testes, male fertility
    * Growth of jaw, brow, chin, nose, and remodeling of facial bone contours
    * Shoulders become broader and rib cage expands
    * Completion of bone maturation and termination of growth. This occurs indirectly via estradiol metabolites and hence more gradually in men than women.

    [edit] Adult

    Adult testosterone effects are more clearly demonstrable in males than in females, but are likely important to both sexes. Some of these effects may decline as testosterone levels decrease in the later decades of adult life.

    * Libido and clitoral engorgement/penile erection frequency
    * Regulates acute HPA response under dominance challenge[9]
    * Mental and physical energy
    * Maintenance of muscle trophism
    * The most recent and reliable studies have shown that testosterone does not cause or produce deleterious effects on prostate cancer. In people who have undergone testosterone deprivation therapy, testosterone increases beyond the castrate level have been shown to increase the rate of spread of an existing prostate cancer.[10][11][12]
    * Recent studies have shown conflicting results concerning the importance of testosterone in maintaining cardiovascular health.[13][14] Nevertheless, maintaining normal testosterone levels in elderly men has been shown to improve many parameters which are thought to reduce cardiovascular disease, risk such as increased lean body mass, decreased visceral fat mass, decreased total cholesterol, and glycemic control.[15]
    * Under dominance challenge, may play a role in the regulation of the fight-or-flight response[16]

    Testosterone regulates the population of thromboxane A2 receptors on megakaryocytes and platelets and hence platelet aggregation in humans[17][18]
    Reference ranges for blood tests, showing adult male testosterone levels in light blue at center-left.

    Testosterone is necessary for normal sperm development. It activates genes in Sertoli cells, which promote differentiation of spermatogonia.

    In animals (grouse and sand lizards), higher testosterone levels have been linked to a reduced immune system activity. Testosterone seems to have become part of the honest signaling system between potential mates in the course of evolution.[19][20]
    [edit] Brain

    As testosterone affects the entire body (often by enlarging; men have bigger hearts, lungs, liver, etc.), the brain is also affected by this "sexual" advancement;[3] the enzyme aromatase converts testosterone into estradiol that is responsible for masculinization of the brain in a male fetus.[citation needed][dubious – discuss]

    There are some differences in a male and female brain (the result of different testosterone levels), one of them being size: the male human brain is, on average, larger; however, in females (who generally do not have as high testosterone levels) the corpus callosum is proportionally larger and women also have more dendritic connections between brain cells. This means that the effect of testosterone is a greater overall brain volume, but a decreased connection between the hemispheres.[21]

    A study conducted in 1996 found no immediate short term effects on mood or behavior from the administration of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone for 10 weeks on 43 healthy men.[8]

    Literature suggests that attention, memory, and spatial ability are key cognitive functions affected by testosterone in humans. Preliminary evidence suggests that low testosterone levels may be a risk factor for cognitive decline and possibly for dementia of the Alzheimer’s type,[22][23] a key argument in Life Extension Medicine for the use of testosterone in anti-aging therapies. Much of the literature, however, suggests a curvilinear or even quadratic relationship between spatial performance and circulating testosterone,[24] where both hypo- and hypersecretion of circulating androgens have negative effects on cognition and cognitively-modulated aggressivity, as detailed above.

    Contrary to what has been postulated in outdated studies and by certain sections of the media, aggressive behaviour is not typically seen in hypogonadal men who have their testosterone replaced adequately to the eugonadal/normal range. In fact, aggressive behaviour has been associated with hypogonadism and low testosterone levels and it would seem as though supraphysiological and low levels of testosterone and hypogonadism cause mood disorders and aggressive behaviour, with eugondal/normal testosterone levels being important for mental well-being. Testosterone depletion is a normal consequence of aging in men. One consequence of this is an increased risk for the development of Alzheimer’s Disease.[25][26]
    [edit] Biochemistry
    [edit] Biosynthesis
    Human steroidogenesis, showing testosterone near bottom.

    Like other steroid hormones, testosterone is derived from cholesterol.[27] The largest amounts of testosterone are produced by the testes in men. It is also synthesized in far smaller quantities in women by the thecal cells of the ovaries, by the placenta, as well as by the zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex in both sexes.

    In the testes, testosterone is produced by the Leydig cells.[28] The male generative glands also contain Sertoli cells which require testosterone for spermatogenesis. Like most hormones, testosterone is supplied to target tissues in the blood where much of it is transported bound to a specific plasma protein, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG).

    Factors affecting testosterone levels

    * Loss of status or dominance in men.[16]
    * Implicit power motivation predicts an increased testosterone release in men.[29]
    * Aging reduces testosterone release.[30]
    * Hypogonadism
    * Sleep (REM dream) increases nocturnal testosterone levels.[31]
    * Resistance training increases testosterone levels,[32] however, in older men, that increase can be avoided by protein ingestion.[33]
    * Zinc deficiency lowers testosterone levels[34] but over supplementation has no effect on serum testosterone.[35]
    * Licorice. The active ingredient in licorice root, glycyrrhizinic acid has been linked to small, clinically non-significant decreases in testosterone levels.[36] In contrast, a more recent study found that licorice administration produced a substantial testosterone decrease in a small, female-only sample.[37]

    [edit] Metabolism

    Testosterone is reduced to 5***945;-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by the cytochrome P450 enzyme 5-alpha reductase [38] or converted into estradiol by aromatase (CYP19A1).[39]
    [edit] Mechanism of action

    The effects of testosterone in humans and other vertebrates occur by way of two main mechanisms: by activation of the androgen receptor (directly or as DHT), and by conversion to estradiol and activation of certain estrogen receptors.[40][41]

    Free testosterone (T) is transported into the cytoplasm of target tissue cells, where it can bind to the androgen receptor, or can be reduced to 5***945;-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by the cytoplasmic enzyme 5-alpha reductase. DHT binds to the same androgen receptor even more strongly than T, so that its androgenic potency is about 5 times that of T.[42] The T-receptor or DHT-receptor complex undergoes a structural change that allows it to move into the cell nucleus and bind directly to specific nucleotide sequences of the chromosomal DNA. The areas of binding are called hormone response elements (HREs), and influence transcriptional activity of certain genes, producing the androgen effects. It is important to note that if there is a 5-alpha reductase deficiency, the body (of a human) will continue growing into a female with testicles.

    Androgen receptors occur in many different vertebrate body system tissues, and both males and females respond similarly to similar levels. Greatly differing amounts of testosterone prenatally, at puberty, and throughout life account for a share of biological differences between males and females.

    The bones and the brain are two important tissues in humans where the primary effect of testosterone is by way of aromatization to estradiol. In the bones, estradiol accelerates maturation of cartilage into bone, leading to closure of the epiphyses and conclusion of growth. In the central nervous system, testosterone is aromatized to estradiol. Estradiol rather than testosterone serves as the most important feedback signal to the hypothalamus (especially affecting LH secretion). In many mammals, prenatal or perinatal "masculinization" of the sexually dimorphic areas of the brain by estradiol derived from testosterone programs later male sexual behavior.

    The human hormone testosterone is produced in greater amounts by males, and less by females. The human hormone estrogen is produced in greater amounts by females, and less by males. Testosterone causes the appearance of masculine traits (i.e., deepening voice, pubic and facial hairs, muscular build, etc.) Like men, women rely on testosterone to maintain libido, bone density and muscle mass throughout their lives. In men, inappropriately high levels of estrogens lower testosterone, decrease muscle mass, stunt growth in teenagers, introduce gynecomastia, increase feminine characteristics, and decrease susceptibility to prostate cancer, reduces libido and causes erectile dysfunction and can cause excessive sweating and hot flushes. However, an appropriate amount of estrogens is required in the male in order to ensure well-being, bone density, libido, erectile function, etc.

  7. #7
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    Contrary to what has been postulated in outdated studies and by certain sections of the media, aggressive behaviour is not typically seen in hypogonadal men who have their testosterone replaced adequately to the eugonadal/normal range. In fact, aggressive behaviour has been associated with hypogonadism and low testosterone levels and it would seem as though supraphysiological and low levels of testosterone and hypogonadism cause mood disorders and aggressive behaviour, with eugondal/normal testosterone levels being important for mental well-being. Testosterone depletion is a normal consequence of aging in men. One consequence of this is an increased risk for the development of Alzheimer’s Disease.
    This I didnt know...^^^

  8. #8
    Senior Moderator Teutonic's Avatar
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    I ll not repeat any of the above..and I learned a few things reading through it all...Thanks..
    For me personally..it brings about a better quality of life. When things are good in the gym, my athletics, etc...ALL aspects of my life improve. Work, sex life, romance, yard work. I m more calm and content when I feel I accomplished a grueling 1 hr 15 minute work out..or am about to. So Id say I benefit almost as much psychologically as physically.
    Age 50
    5 11

    TRT
    PSL Test c 125 a week
    Hcg as needed

  9. #9
    Straight Up Gangster ! Die$eL~Man's Avatar
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    good read

  10. #10
    Novice liberate's Avatar
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    Great post. learned a lot from it.

  11. #11
    Junior Bodybuilder
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    Test promotes nitrogen retention in the muscle so due to that is it recommended to supplement nitrogen like an no2 explode to help increase this even more. along with increasing things like creatine to increase uptake in to body.

  12. #12
    Knowledge Equals Results Phatbastard's Avatar
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    I like the Woodys it brings!

  13. #13
    Pain is for losers iwannabod's Avatar
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    Hmph. Yea, what he said. All I care about is having enough of it. As you age, your body does not make as much of it so it is harder to get it up and keep it up.

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