(Forum for members to discuss the use of anabolic steroids)
Massive Newbie Info
I've been getting alot of people asking me the same questions and alot of it is basic info that people should know before they take the plunge into cycling. Here is a bunch of articles that I did NOT write but are useful. While some of them contain opinions that I don't agree with 100%, the info in them is good. Thanks is in order to those who wrote them...
I WANT TO USE STEROIDS:
By Jason Meuller
I have often been accused of being pro-steroid. Unfortunately, anabolic steroids belong to a long list of subjects that our society has forbidden any kind of intelligent discussion. It's impossible to criticize a homosexual without being labeled a homophobe. You can't discuss the possible merits of drug legalization because you are immediately branded a radical. Why in the world would someone want to defend the use of anabolic steroids, which have been clearly demonstrated to be killer drugs and the scourge of modern athletics?
I'm considered somewhat of a steroid guru. As such, the vast majority of questions I get asked on a daily basis deal with the use of these drugs. One of the most disturbing aspects of my job is all of the emails I read from people with an interest in using steroids who have absolutely know idea of what they are getting themselves into. If I had to quantify it, I would say 9 out of 10 people who write me have no business considering the use of steroids.
I'm not concerned with the reasons why a person wants to use these drugs. Quite frankly, I'd be the biggest hypocrite on the planet if I said it were ok to use steroids for competitive bodybuilding but not to better your self-esteem. As long as these drugs are being used for the sole purpose of physique enhancement, the motivation to use steroids is the same. These drugs will take your body past a point you could ever achieve naturally. So, if I'm not concerned with why someone wants to take steroids, what does concern me? Glad you asked. Let's begin.
A Total Lack of any Kind of Basic Knowledge of Anabolic Steroids
I'm always amazed at the cavalier attitude many people exhibit about their steroid use. I can't tell you the number of times I've received an email from someone who's just started their first cycle and wants to know how effective the drugs are. Hello? Isn't this putting the cart before the horse? You've already taken your shots, swallowed the pills, and now you're writing to me wanting to know if you're using an effective stack? Sorry, you're a little too late.
The Internet is an amazing tool that allows virtually unlimited research on just about every topic you can possibly think of. Obviously anyone who can send me an email also has access to the Internet. So why do I get asked asinine questions like this time and time again? At the end of this article I'll list several free online resources where individuals can get very good, unbiased knowledge about anabolic steroids.
If you don't have access to the Internet, there are a plethora of books available on the subject of anabolic steroids. Several that come to mind are the World Anabolic Review, the Underground Steroid Handbooks 1 & II, Performance Enhancement with an Edge, and the Anabolic Reference Guide. Any one of these publications would impart enough information to the reader that they could make an informed, educated decision about steroid use, rather than simply jumping into the fray totally blind.
Steroids are certainly not the killer drugs our government and mass media has portrayed them to be. At the same time, there can be very serious consequences, both medically and legally, with their use. I could never swallow a pill or inject myself with a drug without knowing all of the possible ramifications of doing so, yet I sometimes wonder if my attitude is representative of an ever-shrinking minority.
Anabolic Steroids are Illegal Without a Prescription
I often wonder if this fact is lost upon people who use these drugs. The brazenness I see exhibited by people about their use is quite astonishing. Steroid users tend to associate with other steroid users. Every gym tends to have its "juiceheads" that all seem to run in the same circle. The Internet provides a comfortable haven for those to choose to use anabolic steroids, there are a variety of bodybuilding boards where athletes openly discuss their use of steroids and get advice from their peers. These groups tend to perpetuate the notion that steroids are somehow viewed differently by the criminal justice system.
I must admit that most local police officers do tend to view steroid use as a victimless crime. However, if you manage to attract the attention of law enforcement at the federal level, say by having steroids imported to you, things are entirely different. Agents of the DEA, DOJ, Customs, and other federal agencies view anabolic steroids in the same dim light as most recreational drugs. Once you enter the system, you tend to find that most judges and prosecutors share this same attitude.
I've been through the system because of steroids, and know a lot of other people who've been in my same situation. Judges and prosecutors have no mercy with steroid users. Steroid users are viewed as cheaters, bullies, people who prey on the weak of society. When I was facing charges of steroid trafficking back in 1996, the judge on my case made a comment that she thought steroids were worse than heroin. Needless to say, my ass puckered a bit after hearing this. I've heard enough anecdotal reports from associates and readers to know that once your caught, the consequences are not pleasant.
Certainly steroid use and steroid trafficking are viewed as different ends of the same spectrum. Most steroid users busted on simple possession charges will find themselves on probation, probably having to simply pay a fine and submit to drug testing for a short period of time. Trafficking carries much harsher consequences. Here's the catch. A lot of drugs have set amounts that clearly define what is considered personal use and what is considered dealer quantities. Steroids are not defined in such a manner. Therefore, while you may get busted with what would clearly only be enough for personal use to those with even a rudimentary knowledge of anabolic steroids, the DA probably not going to fall into this category of people. While most prosecutors are very familiar with all manner of recreational drugs, anabolic steroid cases are rarely seen in most jurisdictions. Most public defenders or criminal defense attorneys know nothing about these drugs. So, the most knowledgeable party in the entire case is often you, the defendant. How much credibility do you think you'll have in your attempt to prove your stash was for personal use when your supporting documentation is the World Anabolic Review or Anabolic Reference Guide? About a year ago I tried to help an associate of mine prove that his positive drug test was a result of pro-hormone use. Although I sent him to court with a plethora of scientific references proving his position, both the prosecuting attorney and judge took the position that he was attempting to dazzle them with bullshit. He's now finishing his last months in prison as a result of his positive test due to prohormones.
Anabolic Steroids are Very Psychologically Addictive
What kind of psychobabble is this? Quite simply, once you start using steroids, you won't want to stop. Anabolic steroids take your body to a level you can never achieve naturally, and once that line is crossed, it's very hard to ever train clean again.
I must have weighed around 230-235 lbs when I first started using steroids. I'd been stuck at this weight for a very long time. No matter how I ate, or how hard I trained, I wasn't breaking this natural plateau. Every athlete has a natural genetic limit as to how much muscle they can carry, even under the most optimal of conditions. Once that barrier is reached, you're not going to progress any further naturally. Oh, I've seen very dedicated natural bodybuilders add 5 lbs of lean body mass in a year after having seemingly reached their full genetic potential. I've also seen a lot of natural bodybuilders train for years at a time with very little change in their body whatsoever. For an athlete like this, the temptation to use steroids becomes greater and greater with each passing month.
So, what happens when a natural bodybuilder like the one above decides to use steroids? He grows. In doing so, he smashes the natural barrier and his body begins to transform. Realistically, how do you ever go back to training naturally again? We can liken muscular size to crack, it's extremely addictive. I'm certain that most of you who have already gone over to the dark side can testify to this. It starts out with a small cycle, just one to add 15-20 lbs, then you'll quit. After you achieve your goal, you decide to do another to add a little more weight. Pretty soon this becomes a vicious cycle with no end in sight. You've become so desensitized to steroid use that you start taking more and more risks with your health. You initial goal of weighing a ripped 215 lbs went out the door 10 cycles ago, now you're shooting for 300 lbs and trying to score enough cash for that gyno surgery.
Steroid Have Serious Side Effects
Let me ask you a question? Do you like having a full head of hair? I'm sure the thought of women's breasts excite you, but what about having a set of your own? Most importantly, it is your hope to fully enjoy the golden years of your life, aging gracefully like a fine bottle of wine? These are all things you need to carefully consider before using anabolic steroids.
For the most part, most of the detrimental side effects of anabolic steroids are not life threatening. Using myself as an example, I'm completely bald because of steroid use. Now I'm fortunate in that I have a head that allows me to look attractive as a bald man, I actually prefer being bald over having hair. However, you probably don't, especially if you're white like me. As a general rule, white men look ridiculous bald, the only group that can successfully pull off the bald look and still look cool are African-Americans.
Most bodybuilders develop gynocomastia to one degree or another if they use steroids for long enough. If you've been in a cave somewhere and don't know what this is, it's the condition commonly referred to as "bitch-tits" in bodybuilding vernacular. Again, using myself as an example, after three years of steroid use, I had a nice pair growing. It was so bad that I couldn't go outside without wearing a shirt, and if I wore tight clothing (and what other kind is there when you weigh a muscular 295 lbs?) I had to put tape over my nipples. I was the butt of endless jokes from my loving friends. Every time we went out to breakfast and we ordered coffee, the joke was always the same. "Hey, we don't need any cream, we like to take ours straight from the tap." If we were out at bars, it was always the same story. "Hey ladies, if you're ordering a white Russian, don't worry about the milk, Jason can take care of you." It cost me $5,000 (ok, so I had my chest lipo'd too) and 6 weeks out of the gym in order to fix the damage caused by years of steroid abuse.
Other common side effects include testicular atrophy, acne, edema (water retention), and a host of other conditions that tend to make you less than attractive. Now, we've all heard from the mainstream media how these drugs are killers and how they cause an untold number of deaths every year. For the longest time, the medical community denied that steroids even worked to improve athletic performance, effectively destroying any credibility they might have in trying to educate the public as to the real dangers of these drugs. Do I think anabolic steroids are killer drugs? No. However, I know for a fact that long-term abuse of anabolic steroids will shorten your life, and probably reduce your quality of life in your senior years. Steroids have a proven negative effect on cholesterol levels. Steroids will also cause hypertension in most people. Over time, these two factors will combine to negatively affect your cardiovascular health.
It's been proven that most young people are unable to consider the negative long-term consequences of their actions. However, before you start using steroids, that's exactly what you need to do. Let's face it, we're not ever going to see people dropping dead from steroid use, and you can't overdose on steroids like you can with most recreational drugs. Having said that, what's your risk to benefit ratio? When you're sixty years old and undergoing a quadruple bypass, are the rewards of your steroid use in your youth going to be worth it? I'm not saying this is definitely going to happen, but it is a realistic possibility.
I use anabolic steroids. Am I a hypocrite? After reading this article you might think so. My goal in writing this is not to scare someone into not using anabolic steroids, it's to give them a realistic assessment of the negative consequences of doing so. We live in a drug-culture that has taught us not to trust Big Brother. I really can't blame anyone for not trusting the government, media, or medical community when it comes to information on anabolic steroids. None of these sources has every done anything to really engender our trust. However, I think I have, and I want people to know what the possible consequences of their actions.
NEWBIES THIS IS FOR YOU:
"I'm new and I'm looking for a good fist cycle"
Ok new guys this seems to be a big topic here so here is a post for you. First of all this is not a recipe just a guide line on what you should be researching. You need to learn about these substances in more depth than I will go into here. However, for the new member just coming to AR I think this will answer a lot of questions. If nothing else you will see that there is a lot of studying in your future and there is no quick way to cycle properly
1st cut vs bulk
A lot of people seem to feel you can both cut and bulk at the same time. Well I'm telling you right now to forget that idea. If your ready to start your journey down the dark path you should start it with a good old fashion bulking stack. Don't waist your first stack with a cutter. Save that for after you've gained some more size. If you feel like you need to cut, do it naturally before your first cycle.
This IMO is where most mistakes are made. I try to keep it somewhat clean while bulking but some of you worry way too much about what you eat. This causes many of you to not eat enough. I also think people need to get more carbs while bulking. I've seen many people trying to bulk on what I would consider a cutting diet.
For bulking I suggest high protein, med carbs and low fats. As a general rule I try to consume about 2 g of protein per lb daily while bulking although sometimes I don't get it all in. When I'm not bulking my carb intake is quite low so the boost in carbs gives me quite a treat.
Do some research before you start any Anabolic cycle on how your body reacts to certain diets. If you in an advanced enough stage to be using Anabolics you should already know how you reacts to diets and exactly how many calories you need to eat to accomplish the weight you are looking to acquire. Ask for diet help if you need it. There are many people on AR who know more about diet than I ever will.
Make sure you get a good multi-vit in the mix. Specially with low fat diets.
The are many right and many wrong ways to do things here. There is no one magic formula for cycling. Many people do it many different ways. Many of those ways work well. Many don't. Things I may suggest others may say I'm way off base. I can only tell you what I have learned from experience. You have to make your own decisions for yourself
Its become a common thing that many vets here suggest a test only first cycle. Thats fine. I'm sure you'll get some good gains from it. I myself like a little more in the mix. Like I said test only is fine if you want to stop there.
The most coming thing to ad is deca. Yes its mild on the sides. Yes you get good gains. However, if you do chose deca it will mean that an anti estrogen alone will not prevent gyno 100%. Another substance such as bromo will be needed in case of progesterone related gyno. For this reason alone I suggest eq (Equipoise). The gains are not quit as big but you will keep more of them and that sounds like a good trade off to me.
Dbol and other orals.
I know many of you would like to ad these to a first stack. I did and from experience let me tell you its not a good idea. The side effects are just too high. I was doubled over in bed from my the pains in my liver. Other have had pains from excessive back pumps to the point of missing workouts. trust me on this one save the orals till you know how your gonna react to a all injectable cycle it will make it easier
I suggest you run test at about 500mg. Some say thats over kill and 250mg is plenty first time around. For some maybe. I know for a fact for me it wouldn't have been enough. I upped my doses mid cycle from 400mg to 600mg before I got satisfactory results from my test. To me 500mg is in no way shape or form excessive.
For the eq or deca I would run it at 300-400mg. Ran mine at 400mg. I felt it had a great effect on me.
Other thing you need to be taking
Lots of water. I am not ****ting you when I say on a cycle I drink 2+ gallons a day. I just drink it out of a 1 gallon jug. Hope you don't get in trouble at work for being in the bathroom every 15 min.
Anti estrogen. I personally take nolva though out the whole cycle @ 20mg. If I feel itchy or sore nipples I up it to 50mg till its gone. Then its back to 20mg. I run it till I'm done with my post cycle therapy (pct) (post cycle therapy). Other good things to run with or instead of nolva liquadex, ferma, Arimidex. Read around you'll see a couple others. Nolva for me is simply cheap available and effective.
Post Cycle Therapy (post cycle therapy (pct)) I follow the idea that clomid alone is a perfectly fine post cycle therapy (pct) for most cycles. I will say for any kinda cycle your going to be doing here it is. The thing is you wanna start your clomid when the majority of the anabolics are out of your system. For that you need to know that test Enathate (which is the test I recommend you use right now) after 2 weeks will diminish enough to Begin post cycle therapy (pct). For deca and eq it will be roughly 3 weeks. So you will simply end the eq/deca a week before the test.
The correct way to run clomid:
day 1 300mg
day 2-11 100mg ed (every day)
day 12-21 50 mg ed
For the most part this is very general. I tried to keep it that way. I did not intend this to be a all you need to know about steroids by Ron type of thing. I do not have all the answers. There are many things to learn and I just wanted to give you a good step in the right direction. I have been on this board for years and all I have learned it has taught me. Still everyday I learn something new. Take your time. Read the threads. Read the educational forum. Ask questions. There are many very smart Bros on here. Take advantage of them. Steroids are not a quick fix like some people think. They are a drug you are putting into your body. Make sure before you do this you know what they are and what they will do to you.
STEROID SIDE EFFECTS AND HOW TO STOP THEM PART 1:
Steroid Side Effects And How To Avoid Them
This chapter, along with the chapter on the proper use of ancillary medications, are two of the most important chapters in this book. Why? Because Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) have side effects, and long-term use of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) can have a profound effect on longevity and overall quality of life in later years if preventative measures are not taken. Having used steroids myself for over 10 years now, I have suffered through virtually ever side effect listed in this chapter, and have consequently educated myself on how to avoid them.
Regardless of your age, it’s important to always bear in mind that the use of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) for the purposes of gaining an edge in sport can be an inherently unhealthy endeavor. There is a distinct difference between the doses of hormones or drugs that are used in slowing the aging process through hormone replacement therapy (hereafter referred to as HRT, please see the chapter on Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) by Dr. Ramon Scruggs for further clarification) and those that are used to enhance performance. If one is to properly use performance enhancing drugs, it is vital that they know the potential side effects of drugs they are using, know how to combat these side effects, and most importantly, actually implement the knowledge they have. Time and time again I’ve seen a bodybuilder develop gynecomastia (commonly referred to as “bitch tits” in the bodybuilding vernacular) despite the fact that the individual in question knew this was a possibility and also knew the preventative measures to take. One should not engage in the use of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) or any other performance enhancing drug if the maintenance of proper health is not of primary concern.
Compounding the problem of treating the side effects of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) is the hysteria surrounding their use in the first place. Many bodybuilders that use steroids find themselves to be social pariahs, muscular misfits if you will, and end up finding comfort in the company of others that engage in steroid use as well. Because a bodybuilder wears his sport, he’s branded a steroid user by many regardless of whether that’s the case or not. Often times, the shame one feels regarding their steroid use will cause them to suffer through the side effects associated with their use, rather than seeking competent medical help. Truth be told, it’s very difficult to find competent medical help to treat the side effects of steroids, as most doctors simply have no idea how to properly do so. More often than not, the physicians I worked with for most of my years on steroids were completely clueless as to how one might ameliorate the negative side effects of these drugs, and would simply tell me to “get off the steroids”. I say this not to dissuade those of you reading this from seeking out the advice of a doctor regarding the side effects of steroid use, just to prepare you for a probable response.
Most of the side effects related to steroids are cosmetic and will disappear when one discontinues their use. But those that aren’t are the most important to understand and treat as necessary. Most of these cannot be seen or felt, and all are related to issues of cardiovascular health. Steroids can adversely affect cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, and hypertension, which over time can and will lead to an increase in heart disease. Always monitor your resting hear rate and blood pressure on a weekly basis when taking steroids and have your cholesterol and triglycerides checked every six months if you are using steroid consistently. These are not problems you can live with, ignore them and you may very well die much earlier than you would have otherwise. Ask yourself this question: “How much is every year of my life worth to me?” If you ignore the potential for an increased risk of heart disease when using anabolic steroids, you are essentially answering the question with, “Very little indeed.”
Before we begin a look at the actual side effects themselves and how to treat them, it’s important to note that not all Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) are created equal!! At times, for the sake of brevity, I will lump all Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) together, but the fact remains that some steroids will cause more negative side effects than others. One of the points of this book is to allow you to make that distinction, and walk away with the knowledge of how to use them as safely as possible. Below is a list of steroids most commonly associated with the side effects listed in this chapter:
Testosterone and its various esters
Unfortunately for us, these also happen to be most of THE most effective Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) (with the exception of Halotestin) for building LBM. Generally, the maxim that the more effective a steroid is the more side effects it has holds true.
Finally, before we begin, readers will notice that I do not advocate the use of estrogen blockers such as nolvadex, clomid (I do post cycle, but not for the purposes of estrogen suppression), or Proviron. With anti-aromatases like Arimidex (anastrazole), Femara (letrozole), and to a lesser extent Cytadren (aminoglutethiamide) becoming cheaper and more readily available, use of estrogen blockers should be relegated to the bodybuilding archives. For a complete explanation as to why, read the chapter Proper Use of Ancillary Medications Both On and Off Cycle.
AAS Side Effects
Acne: One of the primary indicators of steroid use is acne, and I’m sure many of you reading this have either experienced acne caused by steroids or have seen someone who has. Like all steroid side effects, the degree to which someone will suffer from acne varies from individual to individual. The more androgenic a compound is, the more profound effect it will have on increasing oil production in the skin via stimulation of the sebaceous glands. Having said that, I’ve seen individuals use incredibly androgenic stacks and never have a hint or a pimple or blemish, and I’ve seen athletes (especially women) use very mild anabolics and suffer from horrible acne.
Treating acne is very important, both for physical and psychological reasons. Untreated acne can cause permanent scarring of the skin if it becomes severe enough, resulting in a pockmarked area that can only be smoothed through expensive plastic surgery. And acne can have a very powerful negative psychological effect on someone suffering from it, branding someone a steroid user and further isolating them from “normal” society. Severe acne can and will detract from the most aesthetic of physiques, and take away from ones overall presentation.
Depending on the severity, there are several options for the treatment of acne. Since acne is generally caused by the more androgenic steroids, there is always the option of switching to steroids that have few androgenic properties, such as nandrolone, oxandrolone, or primobolan. Light cases can commonly be controlled through frequent washings of the effected area (to remove excess dirt and oil before pores become clogged and infected) and the use of over the counter topical treatments. Moderate cases will generally respond to the use of Retin-A coupled with use of an antibiotic (such as tetracycline) which kills the bacteria which feeds off the oil created by the sebaceous gland. Severe cases of acne should be treated with Accutane, a prescription drug manufactured by Roche that is very effective at permanently eliminating acne. Accutane has a host of unpleasant side effects itself, and treatments are both lengthy and costly (health insurance is a must), but its use is much better than the possibility of permanent scarring from cystic acne. Fortunately, while acne is one of the most commonly seen side effects, it’s also the easiest to treat, as competent Dermatologists can easily be found.
It should also be noted that acne commonly become an issue for bodybuilders that do not cycle off steroids correctly, which will often cause a severe imbalance between levels of androgens and estrogens. Preparation for your off cycle period is equally important as the time spent on steroids, so use of an anti-aromatase both on and immediately following a cycle containing Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) that can convert to estrogen is a must.
Aggression: Men, due to their higher natural production of testosterone, are generally more aggressive than women. AAS, especially those that are extremely androgenic, will further increase aggression in both males and females. This can be beneficial as long as the individual in question can focus the aggression appropriately, such as the lifting of heavier weights during training. There often seems to be a direct correlation between ones ability to control aggression and ones intelligence.
There is nothing worse than an out of control steroid user who is unable or unwilling to control their aggression. Before beginning a cycle of AAS, especially one containing strong androgens, you must prepare yourself mentally for the fact that you are in all likelihood going to be more aggressive than normal, and consequently take the time to assess the nature of your reactions while using them.
STEROID SIDE EFFECTS AND HOW TO STOP THEM PART 2:
Controlling yourself during a cycle is simply a matter of maturity, intelligence, and discipline. If you find that you are becoming easily irritated, constantly arguing with others, or becoming extremely upset over minor things, the use of androgenic compounds should be reduced or eliminated altogether. Might does not make right, and any bodybuilder who allows steroids to control their demeanor is simply affirming the stereotypes people have about overly muscular people.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: BPH is simply an enlargement of the prostate, a walnut-sized gland that surrounds the urethra whose function is to squeeze fluid into the urethra as sperm move through during sexual climax. This fluid, which helps make up semen, energizes the sperm and makes the vaginal canal less acidic. This condition is now considered a normal part of aging for men, with more than half of men in their 60’s and upwards of 90% of men in their 70’s-80’s will show some symptoms. As the prostate enlarges, the layer of tissue surrounding it stops it from expanding, causing the gland to press against the urethra like a clamp on a garden hose. The bladder wall becomes thicker and irritable. The bladder begins to contract even when it contains small amounts of urine, causing more frequent urination. Eventually, the bladder weakens and loses the ability to empty itself. Urine remains in the bladder. The narrowing of the urethra and partial emptying of the bladder cause many of the problems associated with BPH.
Although no conclusive medical evidence exists that long term use of testosterone will lead to an increase in BPH or an acceleration in its development, such a conclusion can readily be made by understanding the mechanisms through which BPH develops. DHT is a primary culprit in the development of BPH, and it is theorized that estrogen may play a role as well. Men who cannot produce DHT do not develop BPH, and the primary treatment for BPH is Proscar (Finasteride), which inhibits the 5a-reductase enzyme. It is this enzyme which is responsible for converting testosterone (along with Halotestin) into DHT. Studies done with animals have suggested that BPH may occur because the higher amount of estrogen within the gland increases the activity of substances that promote cell growth.
Knowing that use of testosterone will increase both levels of DHT and estrogen if the appropriate accessory medications are not used, you can see where I draw my conclusions. It is highly likely that long term use of testosterone, whether it be for performance enhancement of hormone replacement therapy purposes, will accelerate the onset of BPH. Thusly, one should use both an anti-aromatase and 5a-reducatase inhibitor when using testosterone.
Birth Defects: This applies only to female steroid users, as steroid use by males cannot induce birth defects. Any female using steroids should have a pregnancy test before doing so and use an effective form of birth control while on them. When used by a female who is pregnant, Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) can cause Adreno-genital syndrome, which will result in the inappropriate growth of the genitals in a developing fetus.
Cancer: Steroids are commonly believed to cause cancer, even by many who use them. This is primarily for one reason, the hysteria surrounding the death on former football great Lyle Alzado, who died of a brain tumor in 1992. Prior to his death, Lyle went on a very public campaign divulging his many years of steroid abuse, and pointing the figure at Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) as the causative factor behind his cancer. The media latched on to this and exploited it for all it was worth, despite the fact that Lyle’s own physician readily admitted that Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) could in no way caused the cancer the killed his patient.
The fact is that the number of cases that have directly linked steroids to cancer is statistically insignificant, and all are related to the use of C17 alpha alkylated compounds. Again, C 17 alpha aklylation is a chemical modification that allows steroids to be used orally. This makes them mildly hepatotoxic, and continued use over long periods of time can place serious stress on the liver. The few cases of liver damage and subsequent cancer that have been confirmed to be related to the use of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) have occurred in primarily in sick patients whose liver function had already been compromised in some fashion, not athletes. Furthermore, the steroid involved in these cases was almost always Anadrol-50. This makes complete sense, as Anadrol comes in a very high dose per pill (50 mg) when compared to other oral steroids. Furthermore, the amount of Anadrol that was often to prescribed to patients was astronomical, the Physician’s Desk Reference (known as the PDR, the reference guide physicians use when prescribing drugs) recommended 1-5 mg/kg of body weight per day. To put this into perspective, a 200 lb individual would be given anywhere between 100-500 mg of Anadrol per day. This is between 2-10 tabs of Anadrol daily. Anyone having used real Anadrol (and there’s very few that have, almost ALL of the oxymetholone available today is severely underdosed) knows that even 100 mg is an incredibly effective dose that will always be accompanied by a host of negative side effects.
My point is not to minimize the dangers of long term use of 17-AA AAS, but the truth is that short term use of them (4-8 weeks) is a relatively safe pro**********
Cardiovascular Disease: Refer to chapter
Depression: Use of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) can have a profound affect on an individual’s dis********** Depression is most commonly exhibited in male bodybuilders post cycle, when estrogen levels can be incredibly high and endogenous production of testosterone has been suppressed. This can leave a male bodybuilder with a hormone profile more resembling that of a woman, and this can play a profound role in their attitude and outlook on life. More than once I’ve seen incredibly muscular and normally stoic males reduced to tears over sappy television commercials and lamenting their deteriorating condition as the imbalance of estrogen/testosterone wreaks havoc on them physically and mentally. Once again, this can be avoided through use of proper ancillary medications both on and off cycle. Estrogen levels must be kept in check at all times to ensure both maximum gains and minimum side effects. Please refer to the chapter, Proper Use of Ancillary Medications Both On and Off Cycle for more information.
Edema: Many Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) will affect the amount of will affect the amount of water that is stores in the various tissues of the body. To some degree this can be beneficial, the strength that one will gain through the retention of water in muscle and connective tissues will certainly help add additional LBM over time. However, the moon face of a bodybuilder on a bulking cycle suffering from extreme edema is both physically repugnant and inherently unhealthy. One should not ignore the fact that water retention can have a negative impact on both blood pressure and renal function.
Edema is associated with increased levels of estrogen, and thus the culprit for it is once again the aromatizing androgens. An athlete should always prepare for this when using these steroids, through proper application of anti-aromatases like Arimidex, Femara, or Cytadren.
Gynecomastia: Primarily referred to as “bitch tits” or gyno, gynecomastia refers to enlargement of the male breasts. Male breast tissue is ripe with estrogen receptors, just as in that of a female. Consequently, elevated estrogen levels can cause swelling and eventual growth of this tissue, leaving a man with unsightly lumps beneath both nipples. The effect is exactly that experienced by a male pre-op transsexual receiving female hormones to induce the growth of the breasts, albeit on a lesser scale. Untreated, the swollen breast tissue will harden, becoming permanent fixtures underneath your nipples until removed by surgery.
Because elevated levels of estrogen are the primary culprit behind the development of gyno, one should always use an anti-aromatase when using steroids that aromatize. This would normally be during a bulking cycle, when the use of strong, aromatizing androgens becomes a necessity. Unlike many others that have commented on the subject of gynecomastia and estrogen suppression, I would not wait until the effects of estrogen can be seen or felt before incorporating the proper ancillary drugs into my regime, they should be in place from Day 1!
It should be noted that I do recommend use of an estrogen antagonist when using Anadrol-50 (oxymetholone), as this drug exhibits estrogen-like activity despite the fact that it does not aromatize. Because of this, the estrogenic effects of Anadrol cannot be combated using an anti-aromatase, and one would need use an estrogen receptor antagonist such as Nolvadex or Clomid.
There are several Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) that exhibit progestational activity, such as many of the nandrolones or trenbolone (which is derived from nandrolone). It is possible that these steroids could produce or exacerbate gyno in a very small percentage of extremely sensitive individuals, even without elevated estrogen levels. Male bodybuilders that are extremely sensitive to the effects of progestins will have a very hard time avoiding the development of gyno, since the majority of effective steroids either aromatize, exhibit estrogenic qualities on their own (Anadrol), or have progestenic activity. These individuals would need to totally suppress estrogen production while on cycle (using both an anti-aromatase and an estrogen antagonist) or find someway to acquire the drug RU-486, the so-called abortion pill. Use of RU-486 would be the ideal situation for these individuals, as it is a progesterone antagonist. Unfortunately, this drug is nearly impossible to obtain.
BASICS FOR BEGINNERS 101:
Simple guidelines and simple explanations for the simply newbie:
You must understand esters. Esters are attached to Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) compounds. The ester acts as a kind of time releasing vehicle. Esters are broken down in the blood stream and thus the Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) compound is freed. “Long-acting” esters slowly break down, and “fast-acting” esters break down more rapidly. Half-life describes this occurrence.
Ex: If a compound has a half-life of 3-4 days it’s generally a long acting ester since what this means is that it takes 3-4 days for the ester to have been broken down completely and now the test levels can only be “flushed” from the blood. Therefore shots are required every 3-4 days to keep the compound levels constant within the blood.
Common Ester names in no particular order:
There are blends, or mixtures of tests each with their own ester. These are mutli-esterified. An example is Sustanon 250, Omnadren 250, and Aratest.
Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Testicular Axis (HPTA):
Secondly you must understand the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Testicular Axis and the affect Anabolic Androgenic steroids has on your HPTA. The use of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) has a negative affect on your HPTA, which I’ll put in simple terms. For a detailed explanation see the following link:
The body is always looking to establish homeostasis, a balance in the body. Upon the introduction of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) to the body, you begin to reduce your own production. Some Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) compounds are harsher to your HPTA and shut your natural production down hard. A rebound from this shutdown is taxing on the body upon discontinuing use of AAS. Other compounds must be used to help the body return to homeostasis.
The compounds that are harsh on your HPTA will also be harsh on your libido; your sexual drive, and for men can result in a limp penis.
Such compounds that are harsh on the HPTA are:
It is therefore, advisable for at least the sakes of sex, to keep Testosterone as a base for any Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) cycle.
Testosterone as a base:
There are limits to the length of cycle use. When you being Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) use, it takes time for the body to “swap” its natural testosterone with the synthetic compound. The times vary with the particular ester used. However a short Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) cycle will most likely only result in a shut down of HPTA and not leave the body exposed to the synthetic testosterone long enough for positive gains. Too long of a cycle, and your suppressed HPTA will have a harder time recovering.
Further, the body can develop more or less immunities to Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) on cycles ran too long and cycles ran at too high of a dose.
Secondly, the body has limits for how much it can grow. A longer, higher dosed cycle will not be more effective simply because of the body’s tolerance and limited ability to grow.
My own guideline for a first and second time user is any cycle ran less than 8 weeks is too short; any cycle ran longer than 15 weeks is excessive. 10-14 weeks is a good range for a first and second time user.
Estrogen levels will be elevated during the use of AAS. Remember Homeostasis. Application of either anti-estrogen or anti-aromatizer.
Anti-Estrogen V. Anti-Aromatizer?
The body has AS receptors and estrogen receptors. Your goal in using Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) is to flood the AS receptors. Your goal is not to flood the estrogen receptors.
How an anti-estrogen works is that it attaches itself to the estrogen receptors so that estrogen will not. Therefore the estrogen remains free floating in your blood stream but unable to leech onto the receptors and take action.
How and anti-aromatizer works is that it prevents the aromatization of steroids. It prevents the compounds conversion into estrogen. This however has the ability to weaken the effect of the steroid compound.
Zero estrogen is not desirable. Some estrogen is necessary, but too much can cause complications such as gynocomastia (man boobies) and water retention to name a few.
Common side effects while on Anabolic Steroids:
Users may experience a number of side effects due to increased synthetic testosterone levels as well as due to increased estrogen levels.
• Cardiovascular complications: High blood pressure can result from use of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) and with heart problems should seek medical consultation. Combined water/sodium retention and the fact that steroids actually can elevate the cholesterol and triglyceride levels gives explanation to this condition. It is also why some athletes experience a reduction in stamina.
• Acne may result from Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) use, but can be combated a number of ways that should be researched.
• Aggression may also increase while on AAS, however some experience this aggression during high exertion activities, and will otherwise feel somewhat lethargic. Feelings of lethargy, sleepiness throughout the day while on Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) may result. This will be largely affected by the amount of physical activity performed throughout the day.
• Hair loss on the scalp can occur. This condition, as with the others, is dependent on the individual. Certain individuals predisposed to premature hair loss may be at a greater risk for this side effect.
• Hair gain, or activation of hair follicles on the body may also occur. Hair follicles on the chest, back, arms and other places may be stimulated.
• Certain steroids are I 7-alpha alky-lated and are toxic to the liver. It is important to note this and limit intake of foods and beverages that will also be strenuous on the liver.
• As previously noted, Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) use will result in a reduced testosterone production, a decreased spermatogenesis, and in some cases testicular atrophy. The degree of suppression depends on the duration of the steroid intake, the administered steroid, and the dosage of the steroid
• Most steroids cause a water and electrolyte imbalance in the body This results in an increased storage of water and sodium which further results in a swelling of tissue (edema)
• Gastrointestinal symptoms such as epigastric fullness, diarrhea, nausea or even vomiting may result and are associated solely with the use of oral, I 7-alpha alkylated steroids. The oral compounds can be administered with food to reduce these side effects.
• Feminization may result in males if estrogen levels are not kept in check. The most popular feminization side effect of estrogen is gynocomastia.
• Females may experience masculinization effects.
• Kidney complications: The kidneys are under more strain during steroid intake. They are involved in the filtration and excretion of toxic by-products. A high blood pressure as well as variations in the water and electrolyte balance of the body can lead to long-term changes in the kidney's function.
There may be more side effects not listed. All side effects should be researched and understood. There are ways to alleviate some of the symptoms. Remedies and counter-actions should be researched before use of AAS.
What happens at the end of a cycle:
So now the steroids are leaving your body, and overall testosterone levels are dropping. Estrogen is still free floating in the bloodstream. You HPTA is under stimulated. Your body is not in balance and your muscle gains are being threatened to catabolism. Estrogen is catabolic, and since your test levels are not yet recovered the estrogen levels must be put into check all while trying to get your HPTA back as quickly as possible. This is done by some form of Post Cycle Therapy.
Why the body enters a state of catabolism after a cycles end:
The catabolic state is caused by low levels of testosterone combined with high levels of cortisol and estrogen. As said before, some of the androgens you take while on steroids will be converted to estrogen as your body attempts to balance itself out. After your external souce of androgens is stopped (once the cycle ends) your body still has all that extra estrogen and cortisol still floating around.
Along with gyno, high levels of estrogen can also lead to increased fat storage and the catabolism of lean muscle mass. I will not explain the details as to why estrogen can cause catabolism of lean muscle.
Cortisol is hormone, now being called a stress hormone. It is an adrenal hormone that is secreted when the body undergoes physical or psychological stress. Obviously when you take steroids you are putting your body through stress. When cortisol is secreted, it causes a breakdown of muscle protein, leading to release of amino acids (the "building blocks" of protein) into the bloodstream. It does this to raise blood sugar levels to help the brain. However we are not trying to help our brains, we’re meat heads and want bigger muscles, so cortisol does not work in our favor.
We can keep the estrogen catabolism in check by using anti-estrogens.
We can keep the cortisol catabolism in check by consuming superfluous levels of protein and calories.
Post Cycle Therapy (post cycle therapy (pct)):
An anti-estrogen is needed upon the completion of your cycle for sure. With all that free floating estrogen you need to prevent the estrogen from attaching to your receptors and causing their damage. The wrath of estrogen in the aftermath of a cycle is referred to a back lashing of estrogen.
You also need something to help stimulate your HPTA. Something needs to be done about your own testosterone production to combat catabolism, to restore libido and avoid depression.
A very successful compound to stimulate the HPTA is Clomid. Clomid stimulates the hypophysis to release more gonadotropin so that a faster and higher release of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone) occurs. This results in an elevated endogenous (body's own) testosterone level. Sorry I threw some mighty big words out there.
A good post cycle therapy (pct) combo is Nolvadex and Clomid. Nolvadex is an anti-estrogen.
Typical of a Nolvadex and Clomid post cycle therapy (pct) is as such:
Day1 300mg Clomid + 20mg Nolvadex
Day 2-11 100mg Clomid + 20mg Nolvadex
Day12-21 50mg Clomid + 20mg Nolvadex
Timing the post cycle therapy (pct) correctly:
Back to applying the concept of Esters. Compounds bound to long acting esters require a longer waiting period for post cycle therapy (pct) to be administered. Likewise, compounds bound to short acting esters require a shorter waiting period for post cycle therapy (pct) to be administered.
Steroid.....Time After Administration.....Clomid Length
Aratest...........................3 weeks........3 weeks
Anadrol50/Anapolan50........8-12 hours.....3 weeks
Deca Durobolan................3 weeks........4 weeks
Dianabol..........................4-8 hours.......3 weeks
Equipoise.........................17-21 days.....3 weeks
Finajet/Trenbolone............3 days...........3 weeks
Primobolan Depot..............10-14 days.....2 weeks
Sustanon.........................3 weeks........3 weeks
Test Cypionate.................2 weeks........3 weeks
Test Enthenate/Testoviron..2 weeks........3 weeks
Test Propionate.................3 days..........3 weeks
Test Suspension................4-8 hours......2 weeks
Winstrol...........................8-12 hours.....2 weeks
Nutrition and Sleep:
Calorie levels must be increased during Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) use. For the body to grow it needs fuel and since it is growing at an incredible rate you will consume an incredible amount of food. At least you should. Adequate calorie levels for a bulking cycle should be between 4,500 and 5,500 depending on the individual’s size. Calories must also be slightly increased during post cycle therapy (pct) to help counter the cortisol reactions.
When you sleep you grow. Simple as that. Your muscles are relaxed and the body is in a state of repair.
I want to end this with a few simple beginner cycles. These can be used as a reference, or a guide to building your own personal one. Keep in mind your goals should be reasonable as well as your dosages.
First timer cycles:
In between bulk and cut cycles:
Wk 1-10 Test Enanthate 400mg each week
Wk 1-15 Nolvadex 20mg each day
Wk 12-15 Clomid (dose using the guideline I listed above)
*That is 14 days after last shot.
Wk 1-10 Test Cypionate 400mg each week
Wk 1-15 Nolvadex 20m each day
Wk 12-15 Clomid
*That is 14 days after last shot.
Second timer cycles:
Wk 1-13 Test Enanthate/Cypionate 400-500mg each week
Wk 1-12 Equipoise 300-400mg each week
Wk 1-18 Nolvadex 20mg each day
Wk 15-18 Clomid
*That is 14 days after last shot.
*note the Equipoise ran 100mg less than the test also one week shorter
Wk 1-11 Test Enanthate/Cypionate 400-500mg each week
Wk 1-10 Deca Durabolin 300-400mg each week
Wk 1-16 Nolvadex 20mg each day
Wk 13-16 Clomid
*That is 14 days after last shot.
*note the Deca Durabolin ran 100mg less than the test and also one week shorter
Wk 1-10 Sustanon 250 500mg each week
Wk 2-10 Anavar 35mg each day
Wk 1-16 Nolvadex 20mg each day
Wk 13-16 Clomid
*That is 21 days after last shot.
2nd + timer cut cycles:
wk 1-14 Testosterone Propionate 70mg ed (or 150mg eod)
wk 1-13 Trenbolone Acetate 50mg ed (or 100mg eod)
wk 1-16 Nolvadex
wk 14-16 Clomid (started 3 days after last shot of prop)
wk 1-13 Testosterone Enanthate 350-500mg ew
wk 1-12 Trenbolone Enanthate 200-400mg ew
wk 1-12 Equipoise 300-400mg ew
wk 1-18 Nolvadex
wk 15-18 Clomid
wk 1-10 Testosterone Propionate 70mg ed or 150 eod
wk 6-12 Winstrol 50mg ed or 100mg eod
wk 1-10 Trenbolone Acetate 50mg ed or 100mg eod
wk 1-13 Nolvadex
wk 10-13 Clomid
*note once again that tren, deca, Winstrol (winny), and equipoise are all ran at lower dosages than your test.
Using Clenbuterol and or T3/T4 along with a cutter (or bulking) cycle isn't a bad idea. Read up on clen here at: http://forums.anabolicreview.com/showthread.php?t=23808
wk 1-4 Dianabol 20-40mg ed
wk 1-15 Testosterone Enanthate 350-500mg ew
wk 3-14 Deca Durabolin 200-400mg ew
wk 6-14 Anavar 20-40mg ed
wk 1-4 Testosterone Propionate 50mg ed (or 100mg eod)
wk 1-12 Sustanon 350-500mg ew
wk 1-10 Deca Durabolin
wk 6-14 Anavar 20-40mg ed
wk 11-15 Testosterone Propionate 50mg ed (or 100mg eod)
I could go on and on, but all would have testosterone as a base. NOTE: the preceeding cycles are not perfect, modifications can be made to fit the individuals liking.
1ml = 1cc
1g = 1000mg
1g = 1000000mcg
If a vial reads 250mg/ml that means it has 250mg per ml, and each ml is a cc. So if you withdraw 1cc and inject you are injecting 250mg.
The following is the amount (in grams) of testosterone per 100mg of finished compound.
Testosterone Cypionate: 70mg
Testosterone Decanoate: 65mg
Testosterone Enantate: 72mg
Testosterone Isocaproate: 75mg
Testosterone Phenylpropionate: 69mg
Testosterone Propionate: 84mg
Testosterone Suspension: 100mg
Testosterone Undecanoate: 63mg
What this gives you is the concentration that each esterfied testosterone compound has. So when the ester has been broken down in the body, that’s how much concentration is released into the blood stream. The higher the concentration does not necessarily mean a better compound.
I hope I covered all the basis pretty well. I wish I could credit all my sources, but I would just extend credit to everyone at AR. I did some outside reading, but I didn’t document like I should have.
I hope that Newbies read this and understand it. Best of luck for anyone doing research. Be safe.
A "cycle experience" thread on low/moderate dosages of AAS:
I want to state that this is something I put together as a starting place. It is intended to be a thread for beginners, so that they can get an easy grasp on using AAS. It is not law. There may be said information that is incorrect. I am ever updating it for corrections. This is merely a starting point at most. There are many things to learn that should sprout from reading this thread.
*What size needle do I need?
The smaller the gauge the larger the needle.
22 or 23 Gauge, 1.5 Inch is ideal for injections into the glutes.
22 or 23 Gauge, 1.0 inch is ideal for injections into the delts/quads.
*Will it hurt much?
It hurts about as much as a good pinch, but that is all. After the first couple of times you poke, you get used to it.
*For drawing from a vial:
***ALWAYS wash hands before injecting***
Wipe the top of the vial with an alcohol swab before the needle enters - do this every time you pull the bottle out from storage (do not blow on the top of the vial. Let the alcohol evaporate)
Pull back on the syringe approximately as much as you are going to fill it (i.e. - if you are going to draw one cc then first load one cc of air) poke the needle into the vial.
Inject the air into the bottle so that you have created a vacuum effect and drawing will be easier
*Pull back on the plunger until the desired amount is achieved (you may do this with the bottle upside down so that you can 'flick' the syringe to get the bubbles to settle while you are still in penetration
*Once you have the amount you are looking for you will either (A). be ready to switch needles or (B). you may leave the needle on for pulling from another vial if you are going to mix
*So (A). you will pull back on the plunger once you are out of the vial to get the remaining liquid out from the drawing needle's base
*Poking the needle in to the vial dulls it. At this point you may want to switch to a fresh (sharp) needle
You have now drawn from the vial.
***Be careful not to touch the needle to ANYTHING. Think about it, you are injecting deep in to your body. Any foreign particles will be transferred deep in your tissue and you risk a nasty infection.
*Get all bubbles out of the needle - flick it until they rise to the top and then push them through the needle - make sure you get them completely out of the needle as well - don't worry about the juice dripping down the needle and don't even wipe it as it makes for great lubrication
*In the injection spot - for glute you will look down on the 'cheek' and imagine splitting it into 4 quadrants, you would inject into the upper most outer quadrant. For the leg, if you were sitting down you will inject into the outer part of the leg (but more on top, not on the side) where you have the most 'meat'
*Clean the site with alcohol and you are ready to inject
*Quickly pierce the skin and steadily push the needle into the muscle. Push in smoothly until you have but a couple centimeters left of the needle (you never inject all the way in as you want to make sure some is still visible in case the needle should break off and you need to retrieve it)
*Aspirate the syringe - pull back slightly on the plunger - you will see one of two things. (A). You will see a couple small air bubbles that when you stop applying pressure upward on the plunger will readily go back into the muscle or (B). Droplets of blood. (A) being the obviously favorable one. If there is blood you must pull out, switch needles and start over.
*If all is well you may begin injecting. Push in slowly - you will come to find that you can 'listen' to your body and it will let you know how much it is willing to receive at once - when I inject myself I apply consistent pressure to the plunger but I go in only as fast or slow as my muscle wants to at that time. Going too fast will potentially result in an abscess. When you have completed this, wait a few seconds and then pull out and take your alcohol swab and firmly press down and massage the site to make sure everything stays in the muscle and the massage will also prevent soreness in the morning. You may bleed just a little bit, so it helps to tape the alcohol soaked cotton ball to your injection site.
*If you are self-injecting, it helps to stretch out first. If you are poking yourself on the right cheek, use your right hand to poke, and support (under) the needle with your left hand. It is not the easiest thing to do, but it can be done.
*Never inject more than 3ccs at a time
*Never mix your water and oil based gear
*With the Winstrol (winny) shake well and you can inject water based with a slightly smaller gauge but in either case a 22-23g will work fine.
*Rotate injection spots. This will keep your receptors fresh. So right glute, right delt, right leg, left leg, left delt left glute - this will give you ample time off in between - it is up to you how much of the Winstrol (winny) you want to inject versus take orally - but you could potentially be taking quite a few shots - make sure you dont hit an injection spot more than once per wk - you are using 6 sites so you should be fine
Will also keep you from building scar tissue
*Injections are great after a shower so the muscle is relaxed and it also helps to roll the syringe in your hand or run under hot water to heat the liquid to make it easier on you.
***ALWAYS wash hands before injecting
- Rep Power
agreed and done
Originally Posted by Niclipse
NOT ONLY IS STUPIDITY INCURABLE BUT ITS ALSO CONTAGIOUS OVER THE INTERNET.
VAR ONLY CYCLES ARE ONLY FOR PEOPLE WITH A VAGINA.
- Rep Power
Outstanding. There several pieces of information that I've been able to take from that.
Originally Posted by adidamps2
WHAT AN ESTER IS, AND HOW IT WORKS:
I'm sure that if you have taken an interest in anabolic *******s you have noticed the similarities on the labeling of many drugs. Let's look at testosterone for example. One can find compounds like testosterone cypionate, enanthate, propionate, heptylate; caproate,
phenylpropionate, isocaproate, decanoate, acetate, the list goes on and on. In all such cases the parent hormone is testosterone, which had been modified by adding an ester (enanthate, propionate etc.) to its structure. The following question arises: What is the
difference between the various esterified versions of testosterone in regards to their use in bodybuilding?
An ester is a chain composed primarily of carbon and hydrogen atoms. This chain is typically attached to the parent ******* hormone at the 17th carbon position (beta orientation), although some compounds do carry esters at position 3 (for the purposes of this article it is not crucial to understand the exact position of the ester). Esterification of an injectable anabolic/androgenic ******* basically accomplishes one thing, it slows the release of the parent ******* from the site of injection. This happens because the ester will notably lower the water solubility of the *******, and increase its lipid (fat) solubility. This will cause the drug to form a deposit in the muscle tissue, from which it will slowly enter into circulation as it is picked up in small quantities by the blood. Generally, the longer the ester chain, the lower the water solubility of the compound, and the longer it will take to for the full dosage to reach general circulation.
Slowing the release of the parent ******* is a great benefit in ******* medicine, as free testosterone (or other ******* hormones) previously would remain active in the body for a very short period of time (typically hours). This would necessitate an unpleasant
daily injection schedule if one wished to maintain a continuous elevation of testosterone
(the goal of testosterone replacement therapy). By adding an ester, the patient can visit the doctor as infrequently as once per month for his injection, instead of having to constantly re-administer the drug to achieve a therapeutic effect. Clearly without the use of an ester, therapy with an injectable anabolic/androgen would be much more difficult.
Esterification temporarily deactivates the ******* molecule. With a chain blocking the 17th beta position, binding to the androgen receptor is not possible (it can exert no activity in the body). In order for the compound to become active the ester must therefore first be removed. This automatically occurs once the compound has filtered into blood circulation, where esterase enzymes quickly cleave off (hydrolyze) the ester chain. This will restore the necessary hydroxyl (OH) group at the 17th beta position, enabling the drug to attach to the appropriate receptor. Now and only now will the ******* be able to have an effect on skeletal muscle tissue. You can start to see why considering testosterone cypionate much more potent than enanthate makes little sense, as your muscles are seeing only free testosterone no matter what ester was used to deploy it.
ACTIONS OF DIFFERENT ESTERS
There are many different esters that are used with anabolic/androgenic *******s, but again, they all do basically the same thing. Esters vary only in their ability to reduce a *******'s water solubility. An ester like propionate for example will slow the release of a ******* for a few days, while the duration will be weeks with a decanoate ester. Esters have no effect on the tendency for the parent ******* to convert to estrogen or DHT (dihydrotestosterone: a more potent metabolite) nor will it effect the overall muscle-building potency of the compound. Any differences in results and side effects that may be noted by bodybuilders who have used various esterified versions of the same base ******* are just issues of timing. Testosterone enanthate causes estrogen related problems more readily than Sustanon, simply because with enanthate testosterone levels will peak and trough much sooner (1-2 week release duration as opposed to 3 or 4). Likewise testosterone suspension is the worst in regards to gyno and water bloat because blood hormone levels peak so quickly with this drug. Instead of waiting weeks for testosterone levels to rise to their highest point, here we are at most looking at a couple of days. Given an equal blood level of testosterone, there would be no difference in the rate of aromatization or DHT conversion between different esters. There is simply no mechanism for this to be possible.
There is however one way that we can say an ester does technically effect potency; it is calculated in the ******* weight. The heavier the ester chain, the greater is its percentage of the total weight. In the case of testosterone enanthate for example, 250mg of esterified ******* (testosterone enanthate) is equal to only 180mg of free testosterone. 70mgs out of each 250mg injection is the weight of the ester. If we wanted to be really picky, we could consider enanthate slightly MORE potent than cypionate (I know this goes against
popular thinking) as its ester chain contains one less carbon atom (therefore taking up a slightly smaller percentage of total weight). Propionate would of course come out on top of the three, releasing a measurable (but not significant) amount more testosterone per
injection than cypionate or enanthate.
Sustanon: The "king" of testosterone blends.
The four different testosterone esters in this product certainly look appealing to the consumer, there is no denying that. But for the athlete I think it is all just a matter of marketing (Hell, why buy one ester when you can get four?). In clinical situations I can see some strong uses for it. If you were undergoing testosterone replacement therapy for example, you would probably find Sustanon a much more comfortable option than testosterone enanthate. You would need to visit the doctor less frequently for an injection, and blood levels should be more steadily maintained between treatments. But for the bodybuilder who is injecting 4 ampules of Sustanon per week, there is no advantage over other testosterone products. In fact, the high price tag for Sustanon usually makes it a very poor buy in the face of cheaper testosterone enanthate/cypionate. Bodybuilders should probably stop looking at the four ester issue, and stick with totals (Sustanon is just a 250mg testosterone ampule). Were enanthate to be available for say $10 per amp of 250mg, and Sustanon priced nearly double that, buying the Sustanon would be like throwing money away. If you could get nearly double the milligram amount for the same price with enanthate, this is the better product to go with hands down. Leave the high priced stuff for the guys who don't know any better.
While the advent of esters certainly constitutes an invaluable advance in the field of anabolic ******* medicine, clearly you can see that there is no magic involved here. Esters work in a well-understood and predictable manner, and do not alter the activity of
the parent ******* in any way other than to delay its release. Although the lure surrounding various ******* products like testosterone cypionate, Sustanon, Omnadren etc. certainly makes for interesting conversation, realistically it just amounts to misinformation that the athlete would be better off ignoring. Testosterone is testosterone and anyone who is going to tell you one ester form of this (or any) hormone is much better than another one should do a little more research, and a lot less talking.
Acetate: Chemical Structure C2H4O2.
Also referred to as: Acetic Acid; Ethylic acid; Vinegar acid; vinegar; Methanecarboxylic acid. Acetate esters delay the release of a ******* for only a couple of days. Contrary to what you may have read, acetate esters do not increase the tendency for fat removal. Again, there is no known mechanism for it to do so. This ester is used on oralprimobolan tablets (metenolone acetate), Finaplix (trenbolone acetate) implant pellets, and occasionally testosterone.
Propionate: Chemical Structure C3H6O2.
Also referred to as: Carboxyethane; hydroacrylic acid; Methylacetic acid; Ethylformic acid; Ethanecarboxylic acid; metacetonic acid; pseudoacetic acid; Propionic Acid.
Propionate esters will slow the release of a ******* for several days. To keep blood levels from fluctuating greatly, propionate compounds are usually injected two to three times weekly. Testosterone propionate and methandriol dipropionate (two separate
propionate esters attached to the parent ******* methandriol) are popular items.
Phenylpropionate: Chemical Structure C9H10O2.
Also referred to as: Propionic Acid Phenyl Ester. Phenylpropionate will extend the release of active ******* a few days longer than propionate. To keep blood levels even, injections are given at least twice weekly. Durabolin is the drug most commonly seen
with a phenylpropionate ester (nandrolone phenylpropionate), although it is also used
with testosterone in Sustanon and Omnadren.
Isocarpoate: Chemical Structure C6H12O2.
Also referred to as: Isocaproic Acid; isohexanoate; 4-methylvaleric acid. Isocaproate begins to near enanthate in terms of release. The duration is still shorter, with a notable hormone level being sustained for approximately one week. This ester is used with testosterone in the blended products Sustanon and Omnadren.
Caproate: Chemical Structure C6H12O2.
Also referred to as: Hexanoic acid; hexanoate; n-Caproic Acid; n-Hexoic acid; butylacetic acid; pentiformic acid; pentylformic acid; n-hexylic acid; 1-pentanecarboxylic acid;hexoic acid; 1-hexanoic acid; Hexylic acid; Caproic acid. This ester is identical to isocarpoate in terms
of atom count and weight, but is laid out slightly different (Isocaproate has a split configuration, difficult to explain here but easy to see on paper). Release duration would be very similar to isocaproate (levels sustained for approximately one weak), perhaps coming slightly closer to enanthate due to its straight chain. Caproate is the slowest releasing ester used in Omnadren, which is why most athletes notice more water retention with this compound.
Enanthate: Chemical Structure C7H14O2.
Also referred to as: heptanoic acid; enanthic acid; enanthylic acid; heptylic acid; heptoic acid; Oenanthylic acid; Oenanthic acid. Enanthate is one of the most prominent esters used in ******* manufacture (most commonly seen with testosterone but is also used
in other compounds like Primobolan Depot). Enanthate will release a steady (yet fluctuating as all esters are) level of hormone for approximately 10-14 days. Although in medicine enanthate compounds are often injected on a bi-weekly or monthly basis, athletes will inject at least weekly to help maintain a uniform blood level.
Cypionate: Chemical Structure C8H14O2.
Also referred to as: Cyclopentylpropionic acid, cyclopentylpropionate. Cypionate is a very popular ester here in the U.S., although it is scarcely found outside this region. Its release duration is almost identical to enanthate (10-14 days), and the two are likewise thought to be interchangeable in U.S. medicine. Althletes commonly hold the belief than cypionate is more powerful than enanthate, although realistically there is little difference between the two. The enanthate ester is in fact slightly smaller than cypionate, and it therefore releases a small (perhaps a few milligrams) amount of ******* more in comparison.
Decanoate: Chemical Structure C10H20O2.
Also referred to as: decanoic acid; capric acid; caprinic acid; decylic acid, Nonanecarboxylic acid. The Decanoate ester is most commonly used with the hormone nandrolone (as in Deca-Durabolin) and is found in virtually all corners of the world. Testosterone decanoate is also the longest acting constituent in Sustanon, greatly extending its release duration. The release time with Decanoate compounds is listed to be as long as one month, although most recently we are finding that levels seem to drop significantly after two weeks. To keep blood levels more uniform, athletes (as they have always known to do) will follow a weekly injection schedule.
Undecylenate: Chemical Structure C11H20O2.
Also referred to as: Undecylenic acid; Hendecenoic acid; Undecenoic acid. This ester is very similar to decanoate, containing only one carbon atom more. Its release duration is likewise very similar (approximately 2-3 weeks), perhaps extending a day or so past that
seen with decanoate. Undecylenate seems to be exclusive to the veterinary preparation Equipoise (boldenone undecylenate), although there is no reason it would not work well in human-use preparations (Equipoise certainly works fine for athletes). Again, weekly injections are most common.
Undecanoate: Chemical Structure C11H22O2.
Also referred to as: Undecanoic Acid; 1-Decanecarboxylic acid; Hendecanoic acid;Undecylic acid. Undecanoate is not a commonly found ester, and only appears to be used in the nandrolone preparation Dynabolan, and oral testosterone undecanoate (Andriol). Since this ester is chemically very similar to undecylenate (it is only 2 hydrogen atoms larger), it has a similar release duration (approximately 2-3 weeks). Although this ester is used in the oral preparation Andriol, there is no reason to believe it carries any properties unique of other esters. Andriol in fact works very poorly at delivering testosterone, bolstering the idea that oral administration is not the idea use of esterified androgens.
Laurate: Chemical structure C12H24O2.
Also referred to as: Dodecanoic acid, laurostearic acid, duodecyclic acid, 1-undecanecarboxylic acid, and dodecoic acid. Laurate is the longest releasing ester used in commercial ******* production, although longer acting esters do exist. Its release duration would be closer to one month than the other esters listed above, although realistically we are probably to expect a notable drop in hormone level after the third week. Laurate is exclusively found in the veterinary nandrolone preparation Laurabolin, perhaps seen as slightly advantageous over a decanoate ester due to a less frequent injection schedule. Again athletes will most commonly inject this drug weekly, no doubt in part due to its low strength (25mg/ml or 50mg/ml).
HALF LIFE SCHEDULES AND INFO:
Different Drug HALF LIFE Schedules
Arimidex 3 days
Clenbuterol 1.5 days
Anavar 9 hours
Stanozolol (oral) 9 hours
Methyltest 4 days
Stanozolol (injectable) 1 day
Clomid 5 days
Dianabol 4.5 hours
Testosterone Suspension 1 day
Here are the half-lives for any of the following steroid esters:
Formate 1.5 days
Acetate 3 days
Propionate 4.5 days
Phenylpropionate 4.5 days
Butyrate 6 days
Valerate 7.5 days
Hexanoate 9 days
Caproate 9 days
Isocaproate 9 days
Heptanoate 10.5 days
Enanthate 10.5 days
Octanoate 12 days
Cypionate 12 days
Nonanoate 13.5 days
Decanoate 15 days
Undecanoate 16.5 days
For all you Sustanon (sust) lovers out there note that the following esters and amounts are used:
Testonon uses the following amounts:
Hopefully, none of us will be in this situation...
LAW AND BODYBUILDING: THE ARREST PROCEDURE:
Disclaimer: This article does not constitute valid legal advice, in all cases consult with an attorney in your state. This article draws upon the common law and the codified concepts contained in the Model Penal Code and the Restatements.
Now I sincerely hope that none of my readers ever get arrested for anything. However, it seems, given the nature of our members, that one or two of you may be arrested at some point in the future. Therefore I thought I would outline, step by step, the criminal justice procedure from beginning to end. It is a rather long process but I have broken it down into about 17 steps.
1) The Report of the Crime
This occurs when the police (or law enforcement agencies) receive information of a possible crime. This can happen through the observations of an officer or “concerned” citizens. Now, if it seems like that the crime did happen then the police would file that in their police files as a “reported crime”. The most commonly reported crimes involve taking or destroying property (60%). The most serious sorts of violations, felonies, are reported very rarely (4-0.5%)
2) Pre-arrest investigation
First, the Police must determine
• Whether crime was committed
• If it was, whether there is enough information pointing to a particular person’s guilt to justify arrest and charges.
If a police officer actually observes crime being committed and makes an arrest then, investigation is no more then officer’s initial observation. For suspicious activity or a report by an “interested citizen” a.k.a. “snitching weasel”, officer will seek further information. The Officer will use different techniques including the temporary detention of suspect on the street or at home. Questioning will range from identification to accusation. Note that while the suspect is in custody, it is still not an arrest. Furthermore the Officer may do any of the following, depending on the circumstances surrounded in the detention.
a) Searching or frisking of suspect when the crime involves violence or some other reason to believe suspect armed
b) Searching the car of the suspect (small chance of this actually happening, and you don’t have to let them do it without a search warrant.)
c) Interviewing of witnesses (including victim)
d) Examination of the crime scene and collection of physical evidence for forensic analysis.
e) Contacting informants (generally for professional criminals)
Now, a search warrant, a writ signed by a judge, is required for
a) Searching or frisking of suspect when the crime involves violence or some other reason to believe suspect armed
b) Searching the car of the suspect (small chance of this actually happening, and you don’t have to let them do it without a search warrant.)
On an interesting note, the search warrant must be extremely specific. If you live in Apartment 292(a) and the warrant if for 292(b) because the Officer didn’t write down the entire address, then guess what, when they kick down your door…all that evidence is inadmissible!
3) The Arrest
Generally the arrest occurs when the offices takes the suspect into custody in order to transport him to the station and charging him with a crime. Most arrests are made on officer’s initiative, although a few may be authorized in advance by a judicially issued warrant. Only 20-30% of arrests are for felonies. Alcohol/drug offenses are the highest category, followed by property offenses. 20-30% of those arrested are juveniles
Now, when you are arrested, do not say a fucking thing. Don’t try to be nice, don’t try to be apologetic, and don’t open your mouth. Let them search you, and don’t mouth off or anything. When they arrest you they are going to “read you your rights”, the most important of these is the right to remain silent. Believe me, the cops are not your friends and anything you say, trying to get in their good graces, is not going to work. This goes for traffic tickets as much as it goes for felony possession of steroids.
Remember to that COPS CANNOT MAKE DEALS. They have no authority whatsoever to offer you a reduced sentence, to “go easy on you, “ or anything like that. Only the District Attorney can make you a deal, so no matter what the cops try to convince you, do not open your mouth. Cops can lie in an attempt to get you to confess, they can say they have the crime on videocassette and 20 eyewitnesses and if you confess now then you will get a lighter sentence. Do not cooperate with them in this manner. I have friends who are cops who brag about how the induce their suspects into confessions based on blatant lies.
Another thing, you have the right to an attorney, but the police are not going to just automatically get one for you. In fact, they try to get you not to see your attorney. The first and only words out of your mouth is that you demand to speak with your attorney, and then do not say anything until a lawyer is present.
Ok, now that you have been arrested, you will first be searched for weapons, contraband, and evidence relating to a crime. Then you will be sent to a “holding” facility (police station, local jail, etc). When you get there they will enter your name, time of arrival and offense into the police blotter or log. You will have your photograph taken and your fingerprints will also be recorded. At this point, you should be informed (again) of the charges against you and you will be allowed to make one 1 phone call. If you are arrested on a minor offense, you may be able to obtain release on something called “stationhouse bail” which is when you post cash and promise to return to appear before a court.
If you are arrested on a serious crime you will be placed in lockup and held until such time as you can be arraigned (go before a Judge and try to post bail).
5) Post-arrest investigation
If you were caught “red-handed”, there is little left to be done. Otherwise police will conduct investigation much like pre-arrest with one important distinction. They will be able to investigate the person of the arrestee (usually not available prior to arrest)
-Example: lineup, questioned at length, handwriting or hair samples, etc.
-Usually not applied to vast majority of arrestees and in some cases only to felony cases.
6) Decision to charge
First a higher-ranking police officer reviews the arrest report filled out by the arresting police officer. Decision to not charge may be based on conclusion of insufficient evidence or more appropriately handled by a “stationhouse adjustment.” (Ex: warning/lecture)
The second review of whether to charge is made by prosecuting attorney.
• Varies greatly on what crimes prosecuting attorneys review (ex: felonies vs. misdemeanors) and what information they use (police reports vs. interviewing police officer/victim)
• Most significant factor is the strength of the evidence
-If there is only enough evidence for a lesser offense, then charge will be reduced.
• Other factors include harm caused by offense, victim’s attitude toward pressing charges, arrestee’s criminal record, and ability of alternative remedies.
-Weight of factors often dependent on overall caseload of the prosecutor’s office. This is important to note because if you are in a large city there is going to be a lot larger strain on the prosecutor so you might be able to get off with a minor possession of steroids or something. If you get nailed in some tiny little town in the middle of nowhere, then expect to get fucked.
• If prosecutor decides to not prosecute, he will file a nolle prosequi motion. (Motion to terminate the prosecution)
-Almost always automatically granted by the court.
-Can also be triggered by a plea bargain.
7) Filing the Complaint
Charges are usually filed with the magistrate court and called complaints. For misdemeanor cases, which may be tried through the magistrate court, this will serve as the charging instrument. For felonies, the complaint is only for the magistrate, an information or indictment will replace the complaint for when the case reaches the trail court.
The complaint usually includes a brief description of the offense and is sworn to by the complainant (usually the victim or investigating officer). When the officer-complainant did not observe the offense, he will note the facts alleged are based on “information and belief.” The magistrate will then conduct an ex parte review of the case
This is to ensure that enough incriminating information is there to establish probable cause. If probable cause is not established, then prosecution is directed to promptly produce more information or release the arrestee (This is very rare).
8) The First Appearance
The arrestee is now formally considered a defendant and presented before the magistrate. If police through a citation or stationhouse bail had released defendant, the first appearance will not be scheduled until several days after the arrest. Otherwise it will occur (due to state law) without unnecessary delay, usually several hours after arrest (or later depending on when magistrate court is open).
In the proceeding the magistrate:
• Confirms defendant’s identity
• Informs defendant of complaint and will note the various rights that the def. has in further proceedings.
-Usually right to remain silent, right to council, and securing of a public defender/appointing council if defendant is indigent.
• For felonies, magistrate advises defendant of the preliminary hearing and set a date for that hearing unless defendant waives
• For misdemeanors (since the defendant is not entitled to preliminary hearing or grand jury), the magistrate can proceed with the case in the same fashion as the trial court receiving a felony case. The first appearance becomes an arraignment on the complaint.
• Sets bail if none is set or review bail if defendant obtained release through stationhouse bail.
But this is only the beginning, next issue I will finish my over-view of the arrest procedure, but I thought I would break it up into 2 articles. I just want to express my deepest sadness about the terrorist attacks that occurred Tuesday, September 11th. This is a day that no one will ever forget and I sincerely hope that all of us, as Americans and as human beings, can use this horrible event as a catalyst for changing the world we live in. I consider the events of Tuesday on par with the bombing of Pearl Harbor or the Assassination of JFK; the blow to the social membrane is terrible and I think it will take a long time for these wounds to heal.
1) Preliminary hearing
• The ordinary step for a felony case
• A substantial number of felony charges are likely to be dismissed or reduced between the first appearance and the preliminary hearing
• The defendant ordinarily may wave his right to a preliminary hearing. In many states the prosecutor can also bypass this step.
• The preliminary hearing provides a screening of the decision to charge by a neutral body
• Unlike the magistrate however, this screening is presented in an adversary proceeding with both sides represented by council.
-Prosecution presents its key witnesses and the defense will usually limit its response to cross-examination
-This is because traditional defense strategy advises against subjecting defense witnesses to prosecution cross-examination in any pretrial proceeding
• If the magistrate concludes that the evidence presented est. probable cause, then he will “bind the case over” to the next step
-In an indictment jurisdiction, the case is bounded over to a grand jury.
-In an information jurisdiction, the case is bound over directly to the general trial court
• If the magistrate concludes that prob. cause only est. a misdemeanor charge, then he will reject the felony charge and allow prosecution to pursue the lower charge, which will be set for trail in the magistrate’s court.
• If the evidence does not support any charge, he will order that the defendant be released (usually about 5-15% of cases where there is a good deal of screening)
2) Grand Jury Review
• About 1/2 of the states (“indictment states”) and the federal level require a grand jury indictment
-In several of these states, the req. for an indictment is only for the most severely punished felonies.
-In the rest of the states and the federal system, all felony charges require a grand jury indictment unless waived by the defendant.
• The magistrate’s decision at the preliminary hearing is not binding on the grand jury
• The grand jury is composed of a group of private citizens who are selected to review cases over a term that may range from one to several months.
• Traditionally the grand jury has 23 members needing a favorable majority to indict, although many states use a smaller grand jury (e.g. 12) and require more then a majority.
• The primary function of the grand jury is to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to justify a trial on the charge sought by the prosecution.
• The grand jury meets in closed session and hears on the evidence b the prosecution. The defendant does not even have the right to be present.
• If prosecution is successful, the grand jury will issue an indictment. This will set fourth a brief description of the offense charged and be designated a “true bill”.
• If the grand jury does not approve charges, they will be dismissed (happens about 3-8% of the time).
3) The filing of the indictment or information
• If indictment filed, will be issued to the trial court and replace the complaint as the accusatory instrument
• If an indictment is not needed or the grand jury has been waved, the prosecutor will file an information which replaces the complaint. (Usually must be supported by a preliminary hearing unless that was waved in the information states)
4) Arraignment of the information or Indictment
• When the defendant is arraigned, he is brought before trial court, informed of the charges against him, and asked to enter a plea of guilty, not guilty or nolo contendere (when permitted)
-nolo contendre = no contest, where the defendant does not admit guilt, but will not dispute the charge. Is preferable to the guilty plea, which can be used against the defendant in a later civil lawsuit.
• Often plea bargaining occurs, where the prosecution either reduces the charge or the sentence depending on the jurisdiction
-Sentence reductions take the form of a prosecution recommendation for a lenient sentence (which is given great weight by the sentencing judge) or a promise of a specific sentence agreed to by the judge
5) Pretrial Motions
• Some objections must be raised by a pretrial motion in most jurisdictions
• Commonly they
• Often plea bargaining occurs, where the prosecution either reduces the charge or the sentence depending on the jurisdiction
• Present challenges to the institution of the prosecution (claims regarding the grand jury)
• Attacks on the sufficiency of the charging instrument
• Requests for discovery of the prosecution’s evidence
• Motions to suppress evidence obtained in violation of the federal Constitution
• Pretrial motions only made in less that 10% of all felony cases. In misdemeanor cases less then 1%.
-The use of pretrial motions varies with the nature of the case however. Narcotics commonly have motions to suppress.
6) The Trial
• Only 10-15% of felony cases that reach the trial court actually go to trial. Misdemeanors only 5% of magistrate ct.
• In all jurisdictions, the defendant will have a right to a jury trial for all felonies and misdemeanors punishable for more than 6 months imprisonment (although for misdemeanors this right may only be through a trial de novo)
• Most states also provide a jury trial for lesser misdemeanors.
-Juries are traditionally 12 people, although many states use 6 person juries for misdemeanors and lesser felonies.
• In almost all jurisdictions, the jury verdict (regardless of what it is) must be unanimous. When the jury cannot agree, it is a “hung jury.” (No verdict entered and case can be retried)
• The distinguishing features for a criminal trial vs. a civil trial is
(1) Presumption of defendant’s innocence
(2) Requirement of proof beyond a reasonable doubt
(3) The right of defendant not to take the stand
(4) Exclusion of evidence obtained by the state in an illegal manner
(5) The more frequent use of incriminating statements of defendants
• The odds for either a bench or a jury trial favor conviction over acquittal
-This varies with the type of charge however.
• For misdemeanors a judge usually has discretion to impose a fine, probation, suspended sentence, or a fixed jail term not to exceed a statutorily prescribed maximum
• For felonies, the choice is between imprisonment and probation
-The legislature is likely to have prohibited probation for some offenses.
• A majority of the states require that the imprisonment indeterminate sentencing
-In this, the court sets a minimum and maximum term, with the parole board determining the actual release date between these limits.
• Some states require determinate sentencing
-The judge sets a fixed term of imprisonment, which must fall within a fairly narrow range, set by the legislature for the particular crime
-Earlier parole release is eliminated except for limited good behavior credits
• Initial appeals for felonies are taken to the intermediate appellate court or if none to the state supreme court
• Initial appeals for misdemeanor cases will be taken to trial court
• Although in some cases this will consist of a trial do novo
The most common objection raised on appeal is the trial court’s admission of evidence obtained through an unconstitutional search. Is the most common basis for reversal as well?
• Other grounds with less success include:
-Insufficiency of the evidence
-Incompetence of counsel
-Constitutional violations in identification procedures
-Challenges to the admission of a defendant’s incriminating statements made to the police
9) Post conviction Remedies
• After the appellate process is exhausted, imprisoned defendants may be able to use post-conviction remedies to challenge their convictions on limited grounds
• Federal post-conviction remedies allow state as well as federal prisoners to challenge their convictions in the federal courts on certain constitutional grounds
• Relief for federal courts is less than 4%, for state systems they are used less frequently.
-Relief is usually limited to requiring a further hearing.
Ok guys that bring us to the end of the whole arrest procedure. I pray that no one has to experience the entire weight of the legal system. Sorry that my article was so precise, but I just couldn’t concentrate well enough to string together my sentences, all I wanted to do is get my point across.
Remember, the only way to know FOR SURE what's going on in your body is to get regular bloodwork done.
Normal Range Blood Profiles:
CBC with Differential and Platelet
White Blood Cell count: 3.8 - 10.8 Thous/mcL
Red Blood Cell count: 4.2 - 5.8 Mill/mcl
Hemoglobin: 13.2 - 17.1 g/dL
Hematocrit: 38.5 - 50.0%
MCV: 80 - 100 fL
MCH: 27 - 33 pg
MCHC: 32 - 36 g/dL
RDW: 11 - 15%
Platelet Count: 140 - 400 Thous/mcL
MPV: 7.5 - 11.5 fL
Neutrophils, Absolute: 1500 - 7800 Cells/mcL
Lymphocytes, Absolute: 850 - 3900 Cells/mcL
Monocytes, Absolute: 200 - 950 Cells/mcL
Eosinophils, Absolute: 15 - 500 Cells/mcL
Basophils, Absolute: 0 - 200 Cells/mcL
Glucose, non-fasting: 65 - 125 mg/dL
Glucose, fasting: 65 - 109 mg/dL
Urea Nitrogen: 7 -25 mg/dL
Creatinine: 0.5 - 1.4 mg/dL
BUN/Creatinine: 6 - 25
Sodium: 135 - 146 mmol/L
Potassium: 3.5 - 5.3 mmol/L
Chloride: 98 - 110 mmol/L
Carbon Dioxide: 21 - 33 mmol/L
Calcium: 8.5 - 10.4 mg/dL
Phosphorus: 2.5 - 4.5 mg/dL
Alkaline Phosphatase: 20 -125 U/L
Liver enzyme, AST: 2 - 50 U/L
Liver enzyme, ALT: 2 - 60 U/L
Bilirubin, Total: 0.2 - 1.5 mg/dL
Bilirubin, Direct: 0.0 - 0.3 mg/dL
Protein, Total: 6.9 - 8.3 g/dL
Albumin: 3.7 - 5.1 g/dL
Globulin, Calculated: 2.2 - 4.2 g/dL
A/G ratio: 0.8 - 2.0
LD: 100 - 250 U/L
Uric Acid: 2.7 - 8.2 mg/dL
GGT: 2 - 80 U/L
Cholesterol, Total: < 200 mg/dL
Triglycerides: < 150 mg/dL
Iron: 40 - 190 ug/dL
T3, Total: 60 - 181 ng/dL
T4, Free: 0.8 - 1.8 ng/dL
T4, Total: 4.5 - 12.8 ug/dL
TSH: 0.4 - 5.5 mIU/L
Homocysteine (Cardio) , FPIA
Homocysteine: < 11.4 MICROmol/L
PSA - Prostate Specific Antigen
PSA, Total: < 4.1 ng/mL
PSA, Free and Free %: See ref. scale below
PSA, 0 - 2 ng/mL = approx. 1% Probability of Cancer
PSA, 2 - 4 ng/mL = approx. 15% Probability of Cancer
PSA, 4.1 - 10 ng/mL & Free 0-10% = approx. 56% Probability of Cancer
PSA, 4.1 - 10 ng/mL & Free 11-15% = approx. 28% Probability of Cancer
PSA, 4.1 - 10 ng/mL & Free 16-20% = approx. 20% Probability of Cancer
PSA, 4.1 - 10 ng/mL & Free 21-25% = approx. 16% Probability of Cancer
PSA, 4.1 - 10 ng/mL & Free > 26% = approx. 8% Probability of Cancer
PSA > 10 = > 50% Probability of Cancer
Testosterone, LH & Estradiol
Testosterone, Total: 260 - 1000 ng/dL
Testosterone, Free: 50 - 210 pg/mL
Testosterone, Free %: 1.0 - 2.7%
Estradiol: < 32 pg/mL
LH: 1.5 - 9.3 mIU/mL
Stolen from PECS @
Thanks Doc J. Awesome read!
- Rep Power
this is the "go to" thread from now on
CLOMID, NOLVADEX AND TESTOSTERONE STIMULATION:
By William Llewellyn
Editors Note: I am extremely pleased to have Bill Llewellyn contributing an article for us this week. For those who are unaware, he is the author of Anabolics 2000 and Anabolics 2002 and is one of the bodybuilding world's foremost experts on androgens and anabolics. He is also the President of Molecular Nutrition, one of the most innovative companies in this business. Along with Avant Labs and ErgoPharm, Molecular Nutrition is one of the few companies dedicated to putting forth only those products backed by legitimate research, rather than excessive hype and other such B.S. Two products, in particular, that deserve to be more well-known are Viritase, a potent anti-estrogen, and Boldione, a boldenone precursor. To find out more about these, and the rest of their products, I reccomend that you head over to their website -- but only after you have finsished reading big Mf'r and spent all of your money on our products, of course
Now, on to the article:
I have received a lot of heat lately about my preference for Nolvadex over Clomid, which I hold for all purposes of use (in the bodybuilding world anyway); as an anti-estrogen, an HDL (good) cholesterol-supporting drug, and as a testosterone-stimulating compound. Most people use Nolvadex to combat gynecomastia over Clomid anyway, so that is an easy sell. And for cholesterol, well, most bodybuilders unfortunately pay little attention to this important issue, so by way of disinterest, another easy opinion to discuss. But when it comes to using Nolvadex for increasing endogenous testosterone release, bodybuilders just do not want to hear it. They only seem to want Clomid. I can only guess that this is based on a long rooted misunderstanding of the actions of the two drugs. In this article I would therefore like to discuss the specifics for these two agents, and explain clearly the usefulness of Nolvadex for the specific purpose of increasing testosterone production.
Clomid and Nolvadex
I am not sure how Clomid and Nolvadex became so separated in the minds of bodybuilders. They certainly should not be. Clomid and Nolvadex are both anti-estrogens belonging to the same group of triphenylethylene compounds. They are structurally related and specifically classified as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) with mixed agonistic and antagonistic properties. This means that in certain tissues they can block the effects of estrogen, by altering the binding capacity of the receptor, while in others they can act as actual estrogens, activating the receptor. In men, both of these drugs act as anti-estrogens in their capacity to oppose the negative feedback of estrogens on the hypothalamus and stimulate the heightened release of GnRH (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone). LH output by the pituitary will be increased as a result, which in turn can increase the level of testosterone by the testes. Both drugs do this, but for some reason bodybuilders persist in thinking that Clomid is the only drug good at stimulating testosterone. What you will find with a little investigation however is that not only is Nolvadex useful for the same purpose, it should actually be the preferred agent of the two.
Studies conducted in the late 1970's at the University of Ghent in Belgium make clear the advantages of using Nolvadex instead of Clomid for increasing testosterone levels (1). Here, researchers looked the effects of Nolvadex and Clomid on the endocrine profiles of normal men, as well as those suffering from low sperm counts (oligospermia). For our purposes, the results of these drugs on hormonally normal men are obviously the most relevant. What was found, just in the early parts of the study, was quite enlightening. Nolvadex, used for 10 days at a dosage of 20mg daily, increased serum testosterone levels to 142% of baseline, which was on par with the effect of 150mg of Clomid daily for the same duration (the testosterone increase was slightly, but not significantly, better for Clomid). We must remember though that this is the effect of three 50mg tablets of Clomid. With the price of both a 50mg Clomid and 20mg Nolvadex typically very similar, we are already seeing a cost vs. results discrepancy forming that strongly favors the Nolvadex side.
Pituitary Sensitivity to GnRH
But something more interesting is happening. Researchers were also conducting GnRH stimulation tests before and after various points of treatment with Nolvadex and Clomid, and the two drugs had markedly different results. These tests involved infusing patients with 100mcg of GnRH and measuring the output of pituitary LH in response. The focus of this test is to see how sensitive the pituitary is to Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone. The more sensitive the pituitary, the more LH will be released. The tests showed that after ten days of treatment with Nolvadex, pituitary sensitivity to GnRH increased slightly compared to pre-treated values. This is contrast to 10 days of treatment with 150mg Clomid, which was shown to consistently DECREASE pituitary sensitivity to GnRH (more LH was released before treatment). As the study with Nolvadex progresses to 6 weeks, pituitary sensitivity to GnRH was significantly higher than pre-treated or 10-day levels. At this point the same 20mg dosage was also raising testosterone and LH levels to an average of 183% and 172% of base values, respectively, which again is measurably higher than what was noted 10 days into therapy. Within 10 days of treatment Clomid is already exerting an effect that is causing the pituitary to become slightly desensitized to GnRH, while prolonged use of Nolvadex serves only to increase pituitary sensitivity to this hormone. That is not to say Clomid won't increase testosterone if taken for the same 6 week time period. Quite the opposite is true. But we are, however, noticing an advantage in Nolvadex.
The Estrogen Clomid
The above discrepancies are likely explained by differences in the estrogenic nature of the two compounds. The researchers' clearly support this theory when commenting in their paper, "The difference in response might be attributable to the weak intrinsic estrogenic effect of Clomid, which in this study manifested itself by an increase in transcortin and testosterone/estradiol-binding globulin [SHBG] levels; this increase was not observed after tamoxifen treatment". In reviewing other theories later in the paper, such as interference by increased androgen or estrogen levels, they persist in noting that increases in these hormones were similar with both drug treatments, and state that," …a role of the intrinsic estrogenic activity of Clomid which is practically absent in Tamoxifen seems the most probable explanation".
Although these two are related anti-estrogens, they appear to act very differently at different sites of action. Nolvadex seems to be strongly anti-estrogenic at both the hypothalamus and pituitary, which is in contrast to Clomid, which although a strong anti-estrogen at the hypothalamus, seems to exhibit weak estrogenic activity at the pituitary. To find further support for this we can look at an in-vitro animal study published in the American Journal of Physiology in February 1981 (2). This paper looks at the effects of Clomid and Nolvadex on the GnRH stimulated release of LH from cultured rat pituitary cells. In this paper, it was noted that incubating cells with Clomid had a direct estrogenic effect on cultured pituitary cell sensitivity, exerting a weaker but still significant effect compared to estradiol. Nolvadex on the other hand did not have any significant effect on LH response. Furthermore it mildly blocked the effects of estrogen when both were incubated in the same culture.
To summarize, the above research succinctly, Nolvadex is the more purely anti-estrogenic of the two drugs, at least where the HPTA (Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Testicular Axis) is concerned. This fact enables Nolvadex to offer the male bodybuilder certain advantages over Clomid. This is especially true at times when we are looking to restore a balanced HPTA, and would not want to desensitize the pituitary to GnRH. This could perhaps slow recovery to some extent, as the pituitary would require higher amounts of hypothalamic GnRH in the presence of Clomid in order to get the same level of LH stimulation.
Nolvadex also seems preferred from long-term use, for those who find anti-estrogens effective enough at raising testosterone levels to warrant using as anabolics. Here Nolvadex would seem to provide a better and more stable increase in testosterone levels, and likely will offer a similar or greater effect than Clomid for considerably less money. The potential rise in SHBG levels with Clomid, supported by other research (3), is also cause for concern, as this might work to allow for comparably less free active testosterone compared to Nolvadex as well. Ultimately both drugs are effective anti-estrogens for the prevention of gyno and elevation of endogenous testosterone, however the above research provides enough evidence for me to choose Nolvadex every time.
In next month's follow-up article I will be discussing the role anti-estrogens play in post-cycle testosterone recovery. Most specifically, I will be detailing what a proper post-cycle ancillary drug program looks like, and explain why anti-estrogens alone are not effective during this window of time.
1. Hormonal effects of an antiestrogen, tamoxifen, in normal and oligospermic men. Vermeulen, Comhaire. Fertil and Steril 29 (1978) 320-7
2. Disparate effect of clomiphene and tamoxifen on pituitary gonadotropin release in vitro. Adashi EY, Hsueh AJ, Bambino TH, Yen SS. Am J Physiol 1981 Feb;240(2):E125-30
3. The effect of clomiphene citrate on sex hormone binding globulin in normospermic and oligozoospermic men. Adamopoulos, Kapolla et al. Int J Androl 4 (1981) 639-45
Can never have too many good articles on PCT...
VETERANS’ CONSENSUS STATEMENT ON POST-CYCLE RECOVERY – REVISED:
Original - unrevised statement
Anabolic/androgenic steroids are used widely in human and veterinary medicine, and are increasingly useful to the training methods of elite athletes. Benefits of the intelligent use of anabolic/androgenic steroids include enhanced quality of life and the promise of greater longevity, as well as marked improvements in body composition, strength, and stamina. However, anabolic/androgenic steroids produce their benefits by interfering with the endocrine system, a complex system of glands and brain structures that are normally kept in an homeostatic state of balance by the action of countless subtle, sensitive feedback mechanisms. The perturbation in normal endocrine function that is introduced by the use of anabolic/androgenic steroids can, through these feedback mechanisms, elicit compensatory endocrine responses, such as up- or down-regulation of essential enzyme stores or of receptor molecules, in order to maintain homeostasis. When these compensatory mechanisms persist into the post-cycle era after steroids have been withdrawn, unwanted effects can occur, such as fatigue, depression, loss of sex drive, loss of size and strength, and others. Fortunately, both prophylactic and restorative measures that the athlete can take in this situation are now fairly well known.
Many athletes have agreed that androgenic/anabolic steroids render appreciable gains for a limited time only. As said gain period differs between individuals, this CS will refrain from any recommendations to the optimum time of such therapy but discuss methods of restoring optimum normal endocrine function.
It should be noted that the longer a cycle lasts past the eight-week mark, the harder testosterone recovery becomes. The best way of gauging ones hormonal milieu and planning compensatory measures is to have blood tests done prior to and following cessation of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) therapy. For the purpose of this Consensus Statement and the awareness of a lack of testing athletes, the following universally accepted post cycle hormone status is assumed:
a) Luteinizing Hormone (LH): low to none, Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone (LHRH): low to none
b) Testosterone (T): low
c) Estrogen (E): high
d) Prolactin: high
e) Cortisol (C): high
f) Red Blood Cell (RBC) count: falling
While all of these hormone measurements are assumed on the low end of the scale, biochemical individuality will ultimately determine where a person’s levels fall. So assumption of low to substandard levels will not always be true in everyone.
1. What are the goals of testosterone recovery?
The return of hormonal balance is but one goal of this program. To create a transitional period of minimized muscle loss and sustained and/or increased motivation is another.
2. Detailed Recommendations
If the athlete is ready to come off and is still taking long acting esters he shall switch to short acting drugs in order to have complete control of exogenous hormone levels. A “waiting period” for esters to clear is unacceptable and provides for a slow slide into the post cycle catabolic state. This period of short acting supplements shall last for a minimum of 2 weeks.
a) Luteinizing Hormone and shrunken testicles
H C G
If the testis have atrophied, the introduction of H C G at 1000iu x 14 days is necessary. To prevent this atrophy from happening, the use of H C G at 1000iu x 7 days every fourth week of the cycle is recommended. This will provide exogenous LH and must only be used to restore/keep proper testicle size.
Week 1-2: H C G, 1000iu ed
C l o m i d
The practice of using Clomid at 50mg throughout the cycle or 100mg a day for 3-5 days every 4th week has been used successfully to maintain proper testicle size
b) Low testosterone and lack of motivation
The introduction of exogenous hormones to compensate for the low endogenous testosterone levels may help to keep loss of drive, strength and muscle at bay but may also slow the recovery process. The below drugs were chosen for their limited impact on the HPTA
D i a n a b o l
Studies and empirical evidence have shown Dianabol to be beneficial to keep Cortisol in check and provide some intermediate relief from the symptoms of low testosterone via an increase of dopamine, IGF-1, and Central Nervous System stimulation. The heightened dopamine will combat Prolactin and help raise the levels of endogenous Human Growth Hormone. Other studies point to a lack of LH suppression when taken first thing in the morning. It shall be noted that only a low dose is recommended in order to avoid further disruption of the HPTA
Week 1-6: 10mg dbol am, ed
A n d r o g e l
It’s a new drug and detailed studies are difficult to come by, however preliminary investigation has shown this drug to have little impact on the levels of LH in eugonadal patients due to its slow release.
Week 1-4: 50mg Androgel am, ed
c) High Estrogen and suppressed Hypothalamus- Pituitary- Testicular- Axis (HPTA)
Estrogen acts as the primary messenger of testosterone production. Testosterone is aromatized into estrogen, which signals the Hypothalamus to stop producing the proper testosterone release hormones. Estrogen must be kept low.
A r i m i d e x
A powerful aromatize inhibitor shall be part of every cycle. For testosterone recovery it is used to keep the testosterone/ estrogen balance in favor of testosterone. It is also of help to keep any additionally occurring estrogen from dbol and Androgel low to none. Studies have shown a 54% increase of testosterone in eugonadal patients
Week 1-10: ½-1mg ed
C l o m i d
Universally accepted as THE testosterone recovery tool. It blocks estrogen from the HPTA and stimulates the production of LHRH. LHRH then initiates the production of LH, which in turn signals the testis (if not atrophied) to produce testosterone.
Week 3-5: 100mg ed
Week 6-8: 50mg ed
d) High Prolactin and suppressed HPTA
B r o m o c r i p t i n e
A low dose of this drug lowers Prolactin (another HPTA suppressor) and increases HGH in non-acremalic patients.
Week 1-5: 0.625mg every evening
e) High Cortisol, suppressed HPTA and catabolism
Cortisol is catabolic. It is the enemy of all anabolism and must be kept in check. While it is blocked when under the influence of AAS, it is free to attach to the Anabolic Receptors (AR) once the steroids leave. Due to this blockage Cortisol tends to accumulate and increase when on. A low level is desirable however since it is important for other vital functions such as control of inflammation. Balance is the key.
V i t a m i n C
At 3-5g before heavy workouts, it keeps the exercise induced rise of Cortisol in check
Always: 3-5g before workouts
D H E A
A useless pro-hormone as far as anabolism is concerned, this substance is great to keep Cortisol within normal levels. There is a correlation between high Cortisol and low DHEA levels.
Week 1-6: 150mg am and pm
D e x t r o s e a n d M a l to d e x t r i n
It is neither a supplement nor a drug, but these carbohydrates have a very high glycemic index and keep Cortisol levels low by increasing insulin. They also provide excellent energy for heavy workouts. In order to not gain unwanted fat, dextrose and/or Maltodextrin shall be ingested during your workout and with your post workout shake only.
Always: 100g with workout water and 100g with post workout shake
f) Red Blood Cell Count and Stamina
C r e a t i n e
The use of Creatine has shown to increase ATP metabolism and cellular water storage among many other things. This is very beneficial because it provides for heightened nutrient storage and a slight increase in anabolism as well as workout stamina. Perfect with dextrose/Maltodextrin.
Always: 5g with workout water and 10g with post workout shake
V i t a m i n B - 1 2 & I r o n
Prolongs the life of your RBC and may be beneficial for increased oxygen transport
Week1-8: 1,000mcg ed
Miscellaneous beneficial drugs, supplements and recommendations
Z i n c
Assists with testosterone production and is always low in weight lifting subjects. Do not consume with calcium for ease of absorption
Week1-8: 50mg ed
M a g n e s i u m
Has too many benefits for weight lifters to list
Week 1-8: 800mg every evening
V i t a m i n B - 6
Assists with testosterone production, keeps Prolactin in check and is very relaxing
Week 1-8: 200mg every evening
M e l a t o n i n
May improve sleep pattern and help increase HGH. With this supplement, the less you take the more it works.
Always: 1.5mg at nite
D e p r e n y l
Known as one of the most favorite life extension drug this dopamine enhancer provides anti-depressant properties as well as possible IGF-1 increase. Do not take with Bromocriptine.
Week 7 & 8: 5mg eod in the morning
W o r k o u t a n d c a l o r i c r e s t r i c t i o n
Workouts shall be brief and focus on retaining your newly gained strength. A power lift routine may be advantages at this stage. Calorie intake shall match expenditure; a calorie-restricted diet shall commence only upon complete recovery of natural testosterone production.
3. Final word
This program is based on empirical evidence, research and experimentation and represents the maximum effort to recover one’s testosterone production. Some of the above supplements and drugs may not be required or may not agree with every individual and advances in medicine may provide newer and more useful drugs for the testosterone recovery following steroid therapy.
Furthermore, it must be noted that a period of 8 weeks of abstinence from all drugs (vitamins and supplements excluded) is the minimum time recommended and that a blood test to assess actual testosterone recovery act as the only gauge for the timing of the next hormone therapy.
Anabolic/androgenic steroids wisely used have many benefits, but they produce their benefits by perturbing the natural course of endocrine function, something that can have consequences for the athlete in terms of enduring dysregulation of said endocrine function upon the cessation of anabolic use. Fortunately, both prophylactic and restorative measures that the athlete can take to restore endocrine function and prepare the way for the next cycle of anabolics are fairly well known. Problems and their solutions include (a) low levels of Luteinizing Hormone and shrunken testicles, treated by H C G, (b) low testosterone and lack of motivation, treated by Dianabol and Androgel morning applications, (c) high estrogen and suppressed Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Testicular Axis (HPTA) function, treated by Arimidex and Clomid, (d) high Prolactin and suppressed HPTA, treated by Bromocriptine, (e) high Cortisol, suppressed HPTA and catabolism, treated by Vitamin C, DHEA, dextrose and Maltodextrin, and (f) suppressed red blood cell count and reduced stamina, treated by Creatine, Vitamin B-12 and iron. In addition, a variety of miscellaneous beneficial drugs and supplements, such as zinc, magnesium, Vitamin B-6, Melatonin and Deprenyl can speed post-cycle recovery.
Thanks boss!, VERY informative!
- Rep Power
holy crap! JACK POT! this is a freakin encyclopedia here. THANKS!
Livin Life 2 the MAX
- Rep Power
Brilliant post and read mate,
Thanks for the info.
- Rep Power
Thanks for the excellent read and info doc...love the part about the steps of the criminal justice system!
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